Rus Articles Journal

Birthmark - cosmetic defect or a dangerous symptom?

the Birthmark - the phenomenon very well familiar to all. Already in the name its essence is captured: the general for these different types of skin educations is that they are found in the child right after the birth or appear in the first year of his life. Whether it is worth worrying if you saw on skin of the kid of a birthmark?

the Nevus (so in “scientific“ language birthmarks are called) are the focal changes of skin representing a dysplasia (excessive development or, more rare, an underdevelopment) one or several of its structural elements. It is known that skin consists of epidermis - the top layer (nadkozhitsa), terms (some kind of bases from connecting fabric in which there are hair nipples, blood and lymphatic vessels, grease, sweat glands, the nervous terminations) and hypodermic cellulose. The nevus can be formed of each layer of skin.

are Allocated by the following types of a nevus depending on fabrics of which they are formed: 1) melanotsitarny, 2) nevokletochny, 3) organoid (from an epithelium, from connecting fabric, from blood vessels, from fatty tissue). In total each type joins 20 - 30 different nevus; thus, them more than hundred versions will be gathered. Of course, not all, and only the most known and widespread types of birthmarks which can be found in the baby will become a subject of our conversation.

Pigmentary spots

the First two types of a nevus ( melanotsitarny and nevokletochny ) consist of cages of the melanotsit containing a pigment melanin which protects the person from surplus of solar ultraviolet rays and thanks to which skin gains pleasant color of suntan. At violation of pigmentation of a melanotsita can form both sites of congestions, and sites of depression. Respectively, sites of congestions will look more dark than usual skin, and sites of depression - are lighter. The Melanotsitarny and nevokletochny nevus is called still pigmentary spots; we will also consider them in more detail.

Intensity of coloring of such spot depends on depth of location of melanin in skin and can be from blue to black, but birthmarks, as we know, are more often happen brown. There are pigmentary spots equally often both at boys, and at girls and can be present already at the newborn baby or appear during all human life.

the Quantity of spots can fluctuate from several pieces to several hundred, and the sizes - from several millimeters to 15 - 20 cm and more. To the touch they are painless and have no inflammation signs (reddening, a swelling). On a consistence pigmentary spots can be various - from very soft to very dense.

the Huge pigmentary nevus occurs already at newborns. It is symmetrized on both sides of a body or on one party, occupying big surfaces of a body. The huge nevus can have the form of “swimwear“ or “pants“, imitating the look and location the corresponding articles of clothing. Often it is covered with a large number of hair in this connection received one more name - pigmentno - a hair nevus .

the Blue nevus appears at chest age, the sizes of its 0,5 - 2 cm, coloring is gray - blue or blue what there was its name from. Settles down on a face, the top extremities more often, is more rare - on a trunk.

of Halo - a nevus (from Greek halos - “rim“) - one of forms of a pigmentary nevus. It appears more often during life, but can arise also at the birth. Such nevus represents a small knot of a rounded or oval shape, is dark - brown color 2 - 5 mm in the diameter; it is surrounded with a wide rim of light skin (in this connection received the name). Most often challah - a nevus settles down on skin of a trunk and the top extremities.

the Mongolian spot - sinyushno - red, is dark - blue, Xing - the black or brown flat spot similar to bruise. It usually settles down in the field of a sacrum, on buttocks, is more rare - on a lateral surface of hips. More often (in 90% of cases) such spot arises at representatives of negroid and Asian races, is more rare (3 - 10%) - at representatives of Caucasian race. In some cases it independently disappears by 7 years.

What is gemangioma

the Nevus from vascular fabric (gemangioma) by 2 - 3 times meets at girls more often, than at boys. Gemangioma pigmentary birthmarks therefore not only vessels, but also the nervous terminations are sometimes involved in their education are formed of deeper layer of skin, than. In this regard some morbidity or hypersensibility of separate types gemangiy is possible. Gemangioma are formed at the child in a womb. Their size can make from several square millimeters (size of a pin head) to 100 cm of 2 and more. Coloring gemangiy can be various - from pink to darkly - red or claret. There is a large number of their versions; we will list some.

Flat gemangioma - a little sublime superficial spots which are consisting of the smallest vessels (capillaries) and having coloring from pink to it is red - violet color. These gemangioma make up to 96% of all gemangiy. Their size and a form can be the most various.

the Star-shaped angioma is often observed by

at children on face skin and necks in the form of the central ruby point from which in the form of beams of a star small arterial vessels extend. Can spontaneously disappear by 2 years.

of Tuberozno - kavernozny, or cavernous, a gemangioma - elastic, sinyushno - color, red with a brownish shade, sometimes tepid to the touch. It towers over a surface of skin and has an uneven, hilly surface. Can deeply settle down in skin and have in this regard color of usual skin. Such gemangioma consists of the cavities filled with blood differentiated by partitions from connecting fabric. Usually she is the considerable sizes, settles down more often on a face, hairy part of the head, is more rare on extremities, buttocks, sometimes on a mucous membrane of a mouth. It can be painful when pressing, gives feeling of a pulsation. The part tuberozno - kavernozny gemangiy regresses (gradually decreases, and sometimes and disappears) during life, but the part demands therapeutic or surgical treatment.

the Strawberry gemangioma - flat it is bright - the red educations with a clear boundary which more often are on a face. 70% from them pass spontaneously by 7 years.


If needs treatment...

the Question of need of treatment of a gemangioma, and also of terms and methods of such treatment is solved the oncologist in an individual order. Its decision depends on a type of a gemangioma, its arrangement, the size, speed of its growth (if growth takes place), and also on a condition of the child. Small gemangioma are removed entirely by a surgical method - on an outpatient basis and without special problems. Gemangioma of the big sizes and the gemangioma which are settling down on a face treat also in not surgical ways: influence of low temperatures, injection of the certain chemicals causing fall of expanded vascular cavities. Apply also treatment by the laser. Influence of cold (cryotherapy) is usually appointed at superficial gemangioma on open parts of the body. After cryotherapy on the place of freezing there is an inflammatory reaction which disappears to 7 - 12 - mu to day. By the same time the crust disappears and the surface covered with a new epithelium becomes visible. It is possible to cure thus gemangioma in 93% of cases, at the same time the scar which is formed after healing is almost imperceptible.

in itself are quite harmless Gemangioma`s

and usually do not need treatment to 2 - summer age if they do not grow or do not change structure. But in some cases they are one of manifestations of syndromes (the syndrome is a set of symptoms, knowing one of which it is possible to suspect also others). Syndromes are, as a rule, descended.

On skin of the newborn.

the Toxic ekzantema represents the small sites of reddening of skin which are most seen at 48 o`clock life. They disappear over time.


- the phenomenon more often physiological, is presented themselves by the rudimentary remains of embryonic vessels in the form is reddish - the cyanotic spots which are on a nose back, border of hairy part of the head, a back surface of a neck, upper eyelids, lips. They disappear usually by 1,5 years of life and do not need treatment.

Medial spots are found quite often in the newborn baby. These are the pinkish, not rising over skin spots which are settling down on the average line of a forehead on a nose back, on centuries and on a nape. When the kid is in a quiet state, these spots are almost not visible - they appear only at shout or crying. Appearance of spots is similar to flat gemangioma to which they are often confused. Medial spots which settle down on a face usually disappear in 10 - 12 - monthly age.


And it is not dangerous?

the Small pigmentary spots which are present at the majority of us are only minor cosmetic defects and are not dangerous. And here those who has big pigmentary spots more than 5 - 10 mm in size should not sunbathe, go to a sunbed actively. It more concerns owners of multiple spots. Pigmentary spots as it was told above, are congestions of melanotsit, and a gemangioma, despite the high quality, all - is a new growth therefore it is extremely undesirable to subject both pigmentary spots, and gemangioma to impact of ultra-violet radiation once again (under the sun or in a sunbed) as the increased insolation can provoke malignant regeneration of good-quality new growths. Pigmentary spots at intensive radiation, besides production of melanin and darkening, can begin also actively share, thus regenerating in a malignant tumor - a melanoma. However, it occurs at small children seldom.

Be are attentive

At detection of any education on the newborn`s skin to parents needs to pay to it attention of the attending physician - the pediatrician, and with a noticeable growth or change of structure of a birthmark, emergence of an inflammation, additional rashes around it, strengthening of intensity of coloring it is necessary to address the children`s oncologist surely. The doctor will be able to define to what of the listed above educations this birthmark is similar and whether it is display of any disease or a syndrome. Anyway it is desirable to lead round right after the birth the found education on a tracing-paper and to monitor its further growth.

to Mother should pay also attention to that the birthmark was not exposed to constant irritation the fitting clothes that can lead to its growth or damage with the subsequent infection.