Rus Articles Journal

The developing toys. What is it?

more and more actual become Recently a subject of the developing games and toys. Seek to develop children as soon as possible and most comprehensively. But sometimes all development is reduced to training. How these concepts correspond? What toys really well Lena for all-round development?

It is considered p that the toys intended for children`s development have to be obligatory training. The child has to be able to collect, to correlate, make something on a sample etc. Thereby toys which do not assume the similar purpose (ordinary machines, dolls, balls and bears) in the category developing, it seems, and do not fit in.

many toys which are positioned as developing were available For sale. It “the game developing centers“ with various sound and lighting effects, Nikitin and Zaytsev`s known cubes, Montessori`s grants, various cards, a framework and inserts, and also various sets for creativity, unusual designers and even technically equipped rattles. At a label, as a rule, there is a word “developing“ and the age on which this toy is calculated is specified.

But age recommendations on packings are often frighteningly similar - of 3 years. Also happens very difficult to understand when the toy is really necessary. Therefore there are questions: why sometimes toy potential so quickly runs low? And why the kid does not support the initiative of adults him to develop?

And my kid does not want to play

after purchase becomes clear Soon that the child does not wish or cannot use a toy for its direct designated purpose. Possibly, the similar situation is familiar to much. And there are two problems. One of them - missing in age. For example, cunning boards with the figures and zvenelka moving on wire paths - gremelka could suit the two-year-old kid who wants to try various types of the movement and sounding. But to follow a difficult trajectory to it yet not in power, and by then when it is rather prepared for this purpose, the toy will cease to seem interesting.

the Second problem - discrepancy to problems of development. The two-year-old girl received a lacing - a boot, tried to dress on a leg, but, having understood that she this, the major property of a boot from her point of view, it is impracticable, instantly lost to it interest. At the same time she does not leave father`s boots and very skillfully laces up them.

A the five-year-old boy flatly refuses to see in cubes with letters something else, except material for construction, spreads magnificent fortresses for the army as the real bricklayer, and from cubes of concrete words treats folding half-heartedly.

That such early development?

At early age and in preschool too, the emphasis on the bright alphabet instead of dolls and machines brings the child into the sphere absolutely alien to his requirements. Probably, many noticed that most often sense of letters - badges just do not reach the kid and remains unclaimed.

It is unconditional, at a certain stage language acquisition of written and digital communication is necessary. But the more attention we will pay to formation at the child of own game baggage and creative abilities, the it is more than chances that at acquaintance to languages of the world of adults they will be really demanded. First of all the child has to learn to create and express results of the creativity by own sign systems.

Therefore timely development of subject and game activity would be more correct to understand as early development . Contacting to the world of things and phenomena, the world of people and the relations, the child develops an own inner world - desires, tastes, interests, an opportunity and impossibility. From this, apparently, chaotic empirical experience the child will take out immeasurably more, than from all finest exercises, combined. It will also become that most valuable baggage which the child will want and will be able to systematize, will seek to apply it, and is conscious, connecting creative imagination and intuition.

the Developing effect of a toy is defined first of all by nature of game, free from directions. the Main function of any toy consists in activization of free independent children`s activity.

As for didactic toys, in the majority they cannot organically fit into space of free game. The didactic toy assumes a certain framework, “vorotets“, rather narrow to which the child in the course of actions has to get. The will of the action put in a grant of a way begins to prevail over imagination and will of the child, that is in reality it is will of the adult bringing the child to this algorithm. The objects assuming narrowly - stereotypic actions, can become material for trainings, but not game. And if at early age such practice is useful, then later it interferes with development.

the Sphere of game is a sphere of images, the conventions opened by the imagination of the child of opportunities. Thus, at hit of didactic materials in game they have two ways of manifestation of: or in free game they can be used by the child as objects - deputies and thus lose the main mission. M. Montessori`s materials if to give the chance to use them to children in free game with an invention inherent in them will be an exception, perhaps, here. Then in game anyway the main properties will be demanded and mastered. Or didactic materials become objects for occupation with certain rules, i.e. the child has to execute a certain sequence of actions for achievement of result. Thus, it is supposed that the child has already rather high level of randomness

Value of free children`s game

is proved long ago by Psychologists that development of the person happens in his activity. Creating, thinking out, transforming something, the person builds, creates, changes not only surrounding objects, but also himself. For each age there is the leading activity in the course of which there is a development of the personality. D of la of the small child such leading activity is subject and syuzhetno - a role-playing game. in it those qualities which become a basis of successful training - consciousness, will and randomness, commitment, ability of planning and sequence of actions develop.

Main for the child are emotions, practical actions and figurative representations. The pleasure in this case does not entertain the kid, and is a necessary condition and at the same time a sign of its development.

At early age all surrounding objects call

the kid to researches. It builds and destroys, rattles, knocks and moves everything that it is capable to move. This experience gives it knowledge of, the opportunities and properties of the immediate environment.

Later there is a main quality characterizing a new stage of development. It is ability to create conditional space. When the one-year-old kid bangs a spoon on a table - it it just knocks, it likes a sound, the movement is pleasant. And here the three-year-old kid knocks a spoon on a chair and says that it is the hammer, it repairs a chair. It is already game. The child feels as the master, acts as the master, and takes offense on sharp “put a spoon back“. Game is still absolutely simple, but imagine with what changes in an inner world of the child it is connected! He already understands and creates conventions. Replacement of one subject with another forms the imagined space, and symbolical function of consciousness begins to develop.

at the age of 3 - 5 years the child literally absorbs all events and embodies the impressions about events and the relations of people in games. In 5 - 6 years the playing child uses enviable knowledge base and vital supervision. Playing, the kid shows cognitive interest and thanks to participation of the adult satisfies it. The forming beginning in this case are, on the one hand, the impressions received by the kid, and with another - them to acquire the integral opportunities through own free creative game, to make this experience the. The real game for the small child is an immense experience of success and defeat, socialization and loneliness, leadership and submission, researches - opening and their consequences which happen the most unexpected.

the Main quality of game is an opportunity to present what in reality is not present at present. Playing voyage, little “captain“ asks for help in creation of the card, and does not wish to use ready since it is too unclear, and seeks to draw itself and to imprint its own representation. Passengers of its “ship“ (dolls or other children) are provided with provisions and life jackets on a storm case. Dolphins accompany the ship. It is possible to catch edible fish and to make from her a lunch. Than not informative development?

in a format free syuzhetno - a role-playing game with its conventions, a mobile plot and small amount of attributes the consciousness and randomness also develop. The child is already capable to play a concrete role (the doctor, the driver, the cashier etc.) he learns to accept voluntarily restrictions and rules of conduct. Cogitative activity - attention, perception, concentration, allocation of the general and essential signs, ability to generalization is stirred up.

the “Correct“ developing toys

Proceeding from it developing can consider by

those toys and game materials which give to an impulse to independent and free creative game . Toys can be divided into those that treat formation of skills of subject activity, and those which develop socially - the personal sphere of the child conditionally. The first group is more demanded at early age, the second - in preschool and younger school.

the Baby

Development of perception occurs in communication and supervision over the separate, not lost among other objects and actions. Suspended toys are good: volume figures, simple rattles, hand bells, jingles. It is possible to suspend and the rag ball is the first that the kid will be able to take in hand.

of Sensomotornaya coordination assumes coherence of perception eyes and actions by hands. Besides a kitchen uvara, so well-loved by kids, rattles and toys with mobile parts, a fillet and a ball will be useful for rolling, open boxes with cubes and balls for taking out and insertion, a box with a cover, a core with 3 - 4 rings (diameter of an opening in rings is more than diameter of a core at least twice) and toys - inserts (on 2 - 3 molds with obvious distinctions in sizes). An excellent toy for development of motility and movements is the ball. It can be rubber or big inflatable; transparent and with the balls which are rolled inside; rag or wattled. Besides, a ball - remarkable means for communication and ability to accept and give.

For socially - personal development the doll is irreplaceable

. Let it will be absolutely simple. The child learns in it an image of the person. It is good to put or put it about the child or to suspend over a bed. It can be a nodular doll, a tumbler toy or a doll - the naked child in clothes.

Motility, attention, the speech, and thinking are formed by

On the second and third year of life in many respects thanks to subject activity. The kid learns world around generally hands, i.e. is evident - an effective way. For the child of this age pyramids from 3 - 5 - 7 rings in quiet color scale, glasses - inserts of a different form and the size, a nested doll - 3 - 4 - local, dynamic toys - the clown - the acrobat, a bull-calf on a plate and national toys with mobile parts, a lace and large beads for threading, a fillet and balls for rolling, cubes wooden are necessary, “boxes of forms“, are necessary buckets and simple, convenient for small hands of a sovochka, a shovel, a water-mill, nets for “catching“ of toys from a bathtub. Also household things - spoons, cups, towels, rags, hairbrushes and so forth are absolutely necessary. All of them demand absolutely certain actions which hardly are given to the kid.

Playing

with such things, with sand and water the kid opens for himself their qualities. Here the beginning of cognitive interest - search and discovery of various properties and ways of action is concealed, commitment and persistence is formed.

Both to the girl, and the boy the doll is necessary for

for healthy of personal development (to the boy - a doll - the boy). It is desirable that it was similar to the child. It can be a rag doll in attached clothes, or a doll - the naked child with a clothes set. The doll needs a bed with matrasiky, a pillow and a blanket and a tray - a basket. The high cozy carriage not only is desired, but also is very useful to game and to the movement of the child. It is necessary as well doll utensils, ware, clothes with simple fasteners.

also the things capable to become in game objects - deputies who promote development of the imagination of the child are Absolutely necessary for

. For example, wooden bars of the different sizes, fabric pieces, chestnuts and so forth

are necessary to

For development of movements balls of the different sizes, a horse - a rocking chair, a swing, hills, short flights of stairs, logs and small benches for walking.

telling of simple national fairy tales with repetition within several days in a row, telling according to pictures is useful for

For development of the speech. The large artly executed pictures in books with authentic, recognizable images of animals and people are for this purpose necessary.

is also more senior than

From 3 to 7 years

as toys rags of fabrics, wooden churbachka and snags and diverse objects of uncertain appointment (bars, pieces of bark, nuts, cockleshells, baskets, cords, small pillows) - the toys open for the imagination of the child, and the allowing various names and a way of use increase various sizes (capable to serve as deputies of different objects and characters). The most successful materials for large-scale construction are tables, chairs, polished boards, screens, ladders. For desktop construction - it is wooden sets for designing.

to

Need also simple small dolls (sweeties, tell-tales), dolls of an uncertain sex and age (without the person), and animals (the size 5 - 15 cm), finger-type dolls and dolls for theater.

dolls - children of a different floor of 30 - 50 cm, doll furniture, ware, clothes, attributes for game in the hairdresser, the doctor, shop, suit details, transport toys are required for

For a role-playing game. Such toys help to accept and hold a game role.

by

the Mosaic, materials for a molding, application and drawing have to be used for free creativity, without restriction of the child with a framework of others samples.

Too worked toys, their fair range will only brake really all-embracing developing potential of free game. The main quality of a good toy from the point of view of development is its openness. The image is worked less out - the more it is necessary to present to an opportunity, to conjecture. Dolls (as well as animals) have to have only essential signs, then the same figure can change: for example, to laugh and cry, sleep and run, to be upset and angry. Such toys awake and feed imagination, allow the kid to realize the plan. Incompleteness of an image of a toy is important also in order that the child could see in it those lines and show those qualities which are required for it in Dunny moment.

Material of toys has huge value. Children learn a lot of things by means of touch. They touch different surfaces and structures everywhere. Listen to sounding, investigate different other properties. Children who are surrounded by only plastic things live in the grown poor world. And touch standards will not rescue here. If the doll does not differ to the touch from a ship, the machine or the designer`s detail, the child loses a set of live impressions. As a rule, the toys which are qualitatively made of natural materials are more durable, it is easier to repair them, and it for the child - a certain confirmation of his confidence in world around, in its importance and reliability.

Qualitative, filled with sense and bringing satisfaction game can be only if children have an opportunity and a sootvetstuyushchy image organized space for application of forces and the imagination.

One more important condition for its development is presence of sufficient time and rest at the child. Approximately an hour and a half is that time which is required for development and transformations in game until as the game impulse will run low. And rest is meant as a daily opportunity in certain time of day to devote itself to game, without being distracted by TV, radio, sharp voices and emotions in the house.

the Anthem to organized cleaning

Cleaning has not the smaller developing potential. The organization of space at large-scale construction and placement of all game materials in places are the two opposite processes demanding from the child of the internal action plan and idea of the end result, attention and randomness. And unfolding of numerous trifles on boxes - small baskets is a magnificent daily exercise in classification and training of small motility, harmony of objects in space. If not to shift this business to the child, and to carry out excitedly years to six at the same time together, then you will create the most valuable habit to an order.

the Redeveloped toys and underdeveloped game

Should be mentioned also the toys which are slowing down development of the child. These are numerous electronic transport and musical toys, interactive animals and dolls. All of them are united by illusion of own activity. Pressed a button - received result. But for development of logical thinking the kid has to have an opportunity to observe processes, transparent for children`s understanding, and to trace regularities. From where in this box such abundance of musical instruments? And why nobody concerns the car, and it goes? The main thing, probably, that careful parents wish to inspire in the child, is as follows:“ In total in your hands, you are a creator. You can do everything that also even is available to your understanding more. Your opportunities - in your creativity and freedom“. And in this case pressing buttons deceives understanding. The program gives illusion of freedom and the phantom of activity. The paradox is that at visible variability of actions and a freedom of choice the child is a prefix to a toy. The toy manipulates it and sets the action program. Pressed the button - the machine went, pressed another - made turn. The kid does not have the place for activity, for its representation, imagination and transformations.

Special article - animals and dolls which, as well as on a long inattention, answer rocking and stroking an enclasping, remarks, cry. Here the sphere of emotions and feelings of the kid is exposed to the distorted development.

Perhaps, it is good that everything for the person is thought over, made by someone. Please, use! But we want that our children grew up creative persons, sympathetic and active, isn`t it? So when and on what he will learn to invent nonexistent, applying the experience and supervision, to make discoveries, to communicate, love and care not virtually, and it is real? A conclusion arises that the and complete the toy is more difficult, the less it leaves a scope for children`s creativity and independent game actions.

Much later, maturing, the child will freely realize himself as figure independent, active, courageous and adequate. Whether it is not the main task of parents?

Therefore look for good toys which first of all induce the child to work and create.