Dyslexia: it is important to notice
in time the Last researches give new hope to those who have this illness
Eight-year-old Seryozha Kaledin * got on well at mathematics, not bad drew, was dexterous in sports meets, and here reading and the letter were for it a real handful. Even by the end 2 - go a class Seryozha appeared not to remember in forces as the elementary words are written, and could not retell the text.
the Teacher suspected wrong and advised Seryozha`s parents to address the expert. The logopedist made the diagnosis a dyslexia. It means partial disorder of process of mastering reading which is shown in the repeating mistakes.“ In recent years the number of children with a dyslexia significantly increased, - professor of the Moscow scientific research institute of correctional pedagogics G. V. Chirkina says. - High rate of training, intensive programs reveal more and more such children“.
according to L. V. Lopatina managing department of logopedics of Sankt - the St. Petersburg GPU of Herzen, the dyslexia quite often comes to light when violations gain resistant character and the child has a mass of companion problems: process of reading causes disgust, the low self-assessment is formed, there are difficulties with adaptation in collective.
Many parents incorrectly imagine what is a dyslexia. Mothers and fathers breathe sigh of relief when the child begins to sort on syllables of the word and even to read the whole offers, and the dyslexia in a neosystem to a form can remain unnoticed to the senior classes. Others begin to sound alarm, having noticed that the small child writes a letter “Ya“ or figure 3 back to front, - they just do not know that almost all children at a certain stage of development overturn letters.
- About eighty percent of problems with reading at first graders are connected with the inept help of parents and with the fact that the program of school is not agreed with the preparatory program of kindergarten, - E. Yu. Klimontovich, the logopedist with 26 - a summer experience, the specialist of the Center of the psychologist - the physician - social escort of children and teenagers considers.
the Dyslexia - the phenomenon of all languages and cultures. Though scientists did not come to the general opinion concerning frequency it occurrence, many give number from five to 15 percent.“ Everything depends on where to draw a line, - says d - r Chirkina. - Whether we in a look have understanding of the literal sense read or understanding of allegories, allegories. With confidence it is possible to say only that the dyslexia begins with difficulties of mastering technology of reading“.
a question whether the dyslexia is connected with a lack of verbal communication.“ At children from families with low socially - the economic situation more often observes pedagogical neglect, - tells d - r Lopatina. - Such families, as a rule, ask for the help later. But gradually, if in a basis there are no biological factors, it is possible to solve a problem with reading“.
the Probability of a dyslexia depends also on a level of development of intelligence of the child. In opinion d - ra Chirkina, children with violations acquire skills of reading much more difficult. And if to impose on such child the overestimated requirements or to hold him in the conditions of comprehensive school, then, certainly, lag from schoolmates will be very noticeable. But there are techniques by which such children can successfully teach to be read and written.
the Dyslexia quite often comes to light at children with deficiency of attention.“ The syndrome of deficiency of attention and hyperactivity is often accompanied by delay of processes of maturing of the highest mental functions and, therefore, specific difficulties of training“, - considers to. item of N A. L. Sirotyuk, author of the book “Neuropsychological and Psychophysiological Maintenance of Training“. However the dyslexia occurs also at children with the lowered activity. And experience from - for inability to read and study can become the reason.Boys are usually more impulsive than
and show in a class excessive activity therefore they direct to their thicket to inspection - then quite often and problems with reading are opened. However researches show that a floor not especially influences abilities to reading.
In most cases the reason of a dyslexia consists in violations of processing of sounds and sound combinations, so-called phonologic processing, considers d - r Chirkin. Then the child hardly understands that words are divided into separate sounds, and learns to manipulate sounds more slowly. For example, the child the request can nonplus to pronounce the word “mole“ without sound “to“.
Scientists found out that when the children having a dyslexia read, some sites of a brain do not become more active.
the question Arises: what causes this neurobiological failure? It appears, on the speed and automatism with which the reading person transfers letters to speech sounds, genes influence. People, it is heavy to them to do it, usually have relatives with the same problems.
One more probable cause of a dyslexia the fruit hypoxia, a lack of oxygen during pre-natal development is considered.“ This widespread phenomenon, in particular at city dwellers, - considers d - r Klimontovich. - As a result of a hypoxia the exchange of cells of brain substance owing to what the child can have some brain dysfunctions is broken“. However, according to G. V. Chirkina, “to say that the dyslexia is directly connected with a hypoxia, it is very incorrect“.
Though difficulties in translation of letters in unknown words in the speech also have under themselves a genetic basis, not the medicine, but correctional pedagogics most effectively helps to cope with a dyslexia. The science puts forward all new arguments in favor of early intervention. Now in the majority of kindergartens logopedists work. They carry out screening - the tests allowing to define who has from children a high risk of deviations.
according to experts, detection of a dyslexia in 1 - 2 - the m a class promotes development of reading in 82 percent of cases, in 3 - m a class - in 46, and in 5 - 7 - m a class - only in 10 - 15 percent of cases. Doctor Sirotyuk considers that what began later correctional work, especially is expressed secondary frustration are shown: protest reaction, uneasiness, nevrozny symptomatology and so on.
If parents had bases to suspect a dyslexia, you should not wait. Now in all large cities and regions there are children`s advice centers. It is possible to address also the logopedist of policlinic.
Olga Tarasova, seven-year-old Grisha`s mother, was concerned: to the middle 1 - go a class her son did not manage to acquire elementary skills of reading and the letter. Besides, usually cheerful boy became disturbing, irritable and whining. Tarasova addressed the logopedist who defined the formed dyslexia and a dysgraphia at Grisha. >
As it was p, the pedagogical mistake was the cause of all troubles of the boy: the teacher in the old manner forced the boy - the lefthander to write with the right hand. It caused heavy neurosis which consequences resulted in difficulties in development of the program in the child. After a course of occupations problems of the boy managed to be resolved successfully.
Some parents consider that they can exclude surely a possibility of a dyslexia if in initial classes children do not lag behind peers. Though it is known that many children, having good memory, just hide how hard they are given reading. Problems become obvious in the senior classes when it is necessary to read more difficult texts.
How in due time to distinguish a dyslexia?“ Criterion very simple, - E. Yu. Klimontovich explains. - If the child not just reads slowly, but at the same time passes letters, distorts the terminations, badly understands sense of read, cannot tell about what he just read, we consider that at the child the dyslexia is formed“. > As soon as it becomes clear
by p that the child has difficulties with reading, before parents rises a question, what program of training to choose.
- For full acoustical phonemic development needs close interaction of two analyzers of the speech: acoustical and rechedvigatelny, - G. V. Chirkina tells. - We developed the special program for children with phonetics - a phonemic underdevelopment. According to this program now many domestic logopedists effectively work.
Should be considered, A. L. Sirotyuk considers that at children with a dyslexia cognitive interests are late formed and long the game motivation remains. The greatest efficiency role-playing games with inclusion of the actions necessary for development of the required skill possess. At the same time reading becomes not end in itself, but means of achievement of the game purpose.