Tent construction of
History of Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Putinkakhto us is difficult to present Today to
Moscow of the end of the XVII century with number of inhabitants to 200 thousand people, ancient and already built up in borders of the White city which gate opened on all main roads conducting to so ancient cities of ancient Russia.
Small Dmitrovka (the former street of Chekhov) - the road to Dmitrov - is continuation of Bolshaya Dmitrovka (former Pushkin) which began in the downtown near the Kremlin. Walls of the White city began to lose the importance when construction of houses overstepped its bounds, with emergence in this district of the Dmitrovsky settlement which was stretched from the modern Pushkin Square to the Garden ring. Tent Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Putinkakh (1649 - 1652) about which our narration will go, was the first in this area stone structure behind gate of the White city. It is constructed on the place of the wooden church which burned down in 1648 on donations of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich.Development of tent architecture in Moscow
the Architecture of Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Putinkakh is closely connected by
with development and the termination of construction of tent cult constructions in Russia which in the XVI-XVII centuries held a specific place.
Tent temples with high cone-shaped cut end (tent) carried out functions peculiar “the memorial monuments reflecting in the triumphal forms public patriotic ideas of the state“ at which there were victorious motives at the same time memory of the Russian soldiers who were heroically battling for the Homeland.by
Such temple - the monument with a high tent, for example, was constructed to Medvedkovo, in Dmitry Pozharsky`s ancestral lands.Should note
that the name “The Third Rome“ was assigned to Moscow of the XVI-XVII centuries for a long time.
Having received the status of the capital of patriarchal, Christian Russia, several centuries later after baptized the Byzantine priest of Kiev Moscow corresponded to “the Third Rome“ only on direct continuity it Christian belief from the arisen Christianity in Rome - through Constantinople - to Kievan Rus`, then to Moscow.by
However if Constantinople (“the Second Rome“) was as part of the empire it is built up just like Rome even before adoption of Christianity (with triumphal columns and triumphal arches, horse monuments to commanders), then in gold-domed, Christian Moscow introduction of the western culture and architecture happened slowly and began to be entered later - at Pyotr`s government. Therefore in the XVI-XVII centuries in Old Russian architecture there were temples with high tents which are unique monuments of the Russian glory.
From the middle of the 17th century cult tent construction in Russia undergoes changes: Russia enters a strip of revolts in the cities, including Moscow. Country revolt of Stepan Razin added even more shocks.All this
could not promote creation of new monuments - triumphs, and tent construction, having found new sense, enters the last, closing stage - decorative: tents over the main room of the temple become less high, more graceful, without internal space, trimmed with a set of decorative details and carry out a role of architectural jewelry. Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Putinkakh also treats this sort of tent construction.
of Reform of the patriarch Nikon and the end of tent construction in Moscow
With arrival on a post of the head of the Russian church of the conservative patriarch Nikon (1653 - 1667) who achieved a ban on construction of tents directly over the molal temples and ordered to return to the old option (consecrated a pyatiglaviya), tent construction over temples stopped: was considered that the tents decorating chambers of boyars and a tower in the posad are intended only for secular construction. However works on construction of Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Putinkakh already came to an end (1648 - 1652) therefore it became history of architecture as the last tent temple in Moscow. And a porch these bans did not extend to belltowers, side-altars: they became covered by tents.
of Tradition of wooden architecture and an innovation of masters of stone affairs of the XVI-XVII centuries
the Church was built and decorated in a free manner by national handymen who, making a good cause, built not according to drawings, and on drawings, conducting measurements and calculations approximately why the architecture of Old Russian churches turned out live, mobile and very picturesque. The concept of beauty was supplemented with finishing of temples a rich and various decor. Perhaps therefore the church in Putinkakh rolls in decorative furniture.
the Main temple rectangular in the plan is trimmed on the top perimeter by a difficult ornament from the pro-thinned-out brick and is decorated by laid on details of keeled and triangular shape - kokoshniks, as well as three decorative tents.
the side-altar of the Burning bush Adjoining the temple has the facade which is going outside, issued by such set of a decor that comes to the end with the whole pyramid from keeled kokoshniks topped with a small tent with a glavka.
the Massive octahedral tent belltower put on the tetrahedral basis promptly rises over all parts of church up, being the general composite center of all construction. In it bells are placed, and as end serves also the tent with a glavka.the Tent porch with heavy support was delivered to
in 1880 instead of originally put porch. In it stone affairs of the master reproduced characteristic forms of wooden architecture in a stone.the Church was several times restored by
and now appears at the viewer in the updated look. “Asymmetric, with very expressed silhouette, in fine white clothes against the blue sky it is full of unusual, poetic harmony“.