Safety of toys
As we choose toys for the child? One are guided by a certain firm - producer, others reach for dolls and machines of which dreamed in the far childhood, the third seek to create the developing environment for the child... Toys are very important for the child. Many researches are devoted to their pedagogical orientation and efficiency. However many parents sometimes forget that toys surely have to be also safe.by
according to Rospotrebnadzor for the first half of the year 2005 from the checked 163 thousand games and toys withdrew from circulation 54,9% in connection with discrepancy of this production to the established safety requirements. The bulk of this production arrived from China, Poland and Belarus. Specialists of territorial administrations of Rospotrebnadzor as a result of checks imposed 2694 penalties on the sum more than 3 million rubles. By estimates of experts, approximately each three types of toys from five do not conform to requirements.
That with legislative providing this problem? Requirements to quality and safety of production long time contained in state standard specifications and “SanPiNs“ (health regulations and norms). However the Federal law “About technical regulation“, established that obligatory safety requirements can contain only in federal laws what state standard specifications and “SanPiNs“ are not was adopted on December 27, 2002. New federal laws so far are only developed. In other words, the problem of legal regulation of safety of toys is still not solved.to
of Safety requirementwith
On all toys which passed certification in Russia applies number state standard specification and “SanPiN“, compliance to requirements to which it was confirmed as a result of check. Also surely have to be present information at Russian and marking. Marking is usually put by firm - producer.on
To toys imposes a set of safety requirements:
- chemical safety
- mechanical safety
- fire safety
- of the requirement to noise level
- electric safety.
For definition of degree of danger of a product on each of criteria carries out a set of tests. It is unknown what will come to mind to the child, especially small and that he will make with a toy: can break, and can lick. The product intended for children has to be made of nontoxical materials which do not decay with formation of toxic substances eventually (for example, at oxidation of metal details). Content of heavy metals - cadmium, lead, mercury - has to be minimized. Chemical properties of metal details, plastic components, dyes, packing materials and printing ink on packing and instructions are separately tested.Special requirements of chemical safety are imposed on
to so-called chemical toys - sets for young chemists, for occupations by the photo etc. In - the first, the list of the substances included in them, in - the second has to be attached to such sets, the child has to use them only under supervision of adults, and in - the third, in the instruction for use rules of first aid have to be surely specified.
Mechanical safety of toys - quite broad concept. It is inability of a product to put to different child of a trauma. If in a large-size product it is possible to climb, it has to have the exhaust outlet which is easily opened from within. There is also a danger to get confused in ropes. The size of details of toys for children to 3 - x should not allow them to be years swallowed. By the way, you paid attention that now almost all felt-tip pens have caps with openings? For an opportunity to breathe in case of hit in a throat.
When checking a product fine details, rattles (the size of their “rattling“ component and durability of the case - whether can get enough sleep, say, at damage of the case small balls), wheels and tires (it is how easy to break off them), durability of fasteners (nuts, washers), durability of details of motors, springs, threads and elastic ribbons pay attention to keen edges, details to mechanical safety from a foil (which can be torn off and swallowed).
of the Toy, intended for use in water (circles, inflatable animals), have to be projected so that to bear the child`s weight and that the risk of loss of buoyancy was minimized. However it is necessary to make a reservation that this category of toys is intended for use on shoal and it is exclusive under supervision of adults.
of the Toy by means of which the child can move have to have system of braking, rather simple for use by the child and corresponding to the kinetic energy developed by such toy.
the Shooting toy (ballistas for toy locks, for example) has to be designed so that kinetic energy of flying “shell“ excluded a possibility of getting injured.
the whole group of tests for so-called misuse, the including tests for rotation, falling, a kusaniye, stretching and compression, and also for the resilience to blows Exists (treats rattles). If after “misuse“ the toy did not lose the initial properties, so it passed test.
Fire safety of a toy includes the ignition speed, speed of full combustion, ability not to burn under direct influence of a flame, a hardly inflammability (the flame dies away as soon as its source is eliminated), and also ability to emit nontoxical substances when burning. Requirements to fire safety are imposed mainly to carnival costumes, soft toys, and also products in which the child can climb. If it is about chemical toys (see above), then the substances included in a set should not form self-combustible and explosive mixes.Requirements to noise level are imposed on
to electric toys and rattles. The noise limit should not exceed 65 decibels indoors.
It is remarkable that tests are passed also by packing of toys. Packing packages in which products arrive on the market should not be dangerous from the point of view of suffocation of the child.Electric toys conditionally share
on working from the transformer and from the battery. Tension in the power supply should not exceed 24 volts. The transformer has to be manufactured of strong fire-resistant materials. Special requirements are imposed as well to batteries: they have to be explosion-proof, and risk to receive blow has to be minimized by current. All contacting and capable to contact to a source of electricity of a detail have to be isolated. Electric toys should not serve as a hindrance to other electrical equipment. Heating most up parts should not cause burns.have some
about marking Now. On all toys which are not intended for children to 3 - x years, the producer is obliged to put the corresponding prevention. Sometimes meets as well the indication of the recommended age. This indicator is not connected with safety, it is dictated by pedagogical purpose of a concrete toy or degree of complexity if a product assembly. (I remember how assembled the spaceship for the five-year-old nephew. Three hours left on it, and the ship I did not collect that up to the end. The recommended age, by the way, was 7 - 12 years so independently the child would obviously not cope.)
the Palm on marking means that this product develops motility and muscles.
the Sign CE (the Latin letters similar to ellipse halves) means compliance of a product to directives of the European Union on safety.
How to secure the child?
Now about some simplest safety rules of toys whom any consumer can track observance. In general at the choice of toys try to be guided by well-known companies - producers, such as Lego, Mattel, Playmobil and others. Of course, their production is more expensive, than the toys which are on sale in the market and in stalls, but well-known companies carry out tests of the production and are responsible for its safety including the reputation.the axiom is known to
for Everything: it is impossible to give the toys containing fine details, to children to 3 - x years. But it is also necessary to remember that fine details not necessarily have to separate according to an idea of designers - they can be also broken off in the course of game, and the product which is at first sight not containing such details is in practice dangerous to the child.Buying by
a rattle, surely shake it: of course, the perception of the adult differs from children`s perception, but if the sound even seems to you sharp, this sufficient basis to refuse such purchase.
We already mentioned chemical safety of toys. Of course, without chemical analysis it is impossible to learn what substances contain in material of which this or that product is made, but I advise to refrain from purchase in doubtful places of plastic toys in which yellow color prevails: as a rule, yellow dye contains heavy metal cadmium.If you buy by
a soft toy, pay attention to material by which it is filled. Risky to give to the small child the product filled by balls: if the child unstitches a seam in hope to learn what is inside, and will swallow balls, serious poisoning is inevitable. Contrary to widespread judgment, foam rubber also not the best option because over time it begins to decay, emitting toxic agents. This fact should be meant if you sew soft toys. The best material - a synthetic winterizer. The toy filled by a synthetic winterizer well is erased and holds a form.
Unfortunately, many children`s injuries are connected with misuse of toys.“ The injuries of eyes got from toy guns with plastic, rubber, and sometimes and metal bullets are in the lead“ here. Here the negligence from adults is available: in - the first, such toys are categorically contraindicated to use by children till 12 years, in - the second, even the teenager has to play such toys in the presence of adults, and before game adults are obliged to explain him rules of the handling of “weapon“. Rules these just the same, as well as rules of the address with the real firearms: not to direct at people and animals and the more so not to shoot at them, not to look in a barrel, not to put to a temple, not to shoot, holding a trunk near eyes etc.
the Set of injuries do also slingshots. Earlier children did them independently, now not the problem to get even metal model with a convenient emphasis for a hand. Insistently I advise you to refrain from purchase of such toy to your children.to Year in 1997 to me constantly had to see
on the street as children play laser pointers. Unfortunately, I see it still. Once the beam got to me into an eye. Believe, pain just infernal. Fortunately, everything managed. And if influence was a little more long … Let`s think: in the same way incidentally the beam can get into an eye to your child or somebody to another and to lead to an eye injury. Laser pointer to children not a toy!Some parents do to
toys by the hands. Of course, I will not begin to say that it cannot be done. Certainly, it is possible and it is necessary. Only at production of a toy it is necessary to consider safety rules. For stuffing we already spoke about a synthetic winterizer. If you do a toy for the small child, abstain from abundance of metal jewelry and a wire because the child can be scratched. Wooden toys need to be oshkurivat carefully in order to avoid hit of splinters.I Remember
how one grandfather pulled out from the closet “treasures“ like rusty water taps, the broken phones and hanks of a wire, and with pleasure gave all this to the two-year-old grandson. A show, you understand, was awful. Concerning danger of such entertainments the grandfather objected to remarks: “Than the child played! I very much love it!“
Many will agree that the true love is expressed in care. I hope, safe toys will help you to show your most warm feelings to the child.