The Kremlin gate of
the Moscow Kremlin enclosed with brick red walls has the pentagon form. Along its line 19 towers remained, in some travel gate are arranged. Before revolution of such drives through towers was five: in Spassky, Nikolsky, Borovitsky, Taynitsky and Troitsk. In old regime (pre-revolutionary) time any person could be in the Kremlin round the clock. As for gate, now: Are put by Taynitskiye, Nikolskiye do not open, and work as Spasskiye according to the special order for the government and service personnel.Tourists for pass (in certain hours and under tickets) use
only Troitsk and Borovitsky gate. And once still it was possible to go freely lengthways on broad passes on walls of the Kremlin, looking in a crack between the teeth similar to tails of swallows. Muscovites very much loved these walks: from here remarkable panoramic views of the city opened.
Each tower of the Kremlin has own history. Let`s address some memorable fragments that remained in archives. The Taynitsky tower which gate several centuries were open only for pedestrians is considered the most ancient. In it once there was a secret well supplying with water of city dwellers during a siege of the Kremlin foes. In old times Taynitsky gate called still Tayninsky and Chushkovy. The Borovitsky tower received the name from the pine forest which was here in an extreme antiquity.with
According to the legend, on the hill with this pine forest equipped at first Yury Dolgorukiy`s estate, and then also the city was formed. This city which received the name from the river Moscow at first was enclosed with wooden obstacles, then - walls of a white stone, and at Ivan III (Great) brick walls with tent towers (on projects of the invited Italians).
In the first floor of the Borovitsky tower long the chapel, on the second floor - the first parish city church postponed in the 19th century from the center of the Kremlin for the sake of John the Forerunner`s Christmas was.
the Most east tower at the Moskva River is called differently: both Beklemishevskoyu, and Moskvoretsk, and Sviblovskoyu. Still historians argue on near what of two angular towers there was a yard of the boyar Svibla. Therefore and in modern guides Sviblov`s name is given east, western tower. Western it is most often designated still by the name Water platoon, or Vodovoznaya. In it the first city water supply system was arranged. It was when the Moscow inhabitants lodged only in perimeter of city walls.
In old times against the Water platoon tower to the Moskva River the cape, or “nose“ as it was called was given. On it city inhabitants went down behind water which was vznosit or cocked to the city (from here and the name). Then the cape owing to the natural reasons was washed away by water pressures. The river began to threaten with the force and a tower. Muscovites constructed a special protective buttress. But it annually spoiled. In 1787 the engineer Gerard built new protection against water elements. Here a lot of earth was dug, filled imported stones. However from - for constant movements - operations soil at this tower was over the years weakened. And at the very end of the 18th century the tower cracked.
its spike bent and threatened with falling. In 1802 the tower was fastened with iron hoops from thick communications. But in a decade, during the explosions in the Kremlin made by Bonaparte`s army, the tower was completely, to the basis, is destroyed. What we observe now - its postfire new structure and result of work of several restorations.Constantino`s
- the Eleninsky tower in the walls had church for the sake of Saints Konstantin and Elena. According to the legend, at the time of Dmitry Donskoy, through old construction of travel gate of this tower with a many thousands militia there was a prince - the hero for fight with Mamayem on the Kulikovsky field...
Spasskaya, Florovsky, or, on national the pro-hundred-speech, the Frolovsky tower in old times had a church or a chapel Flora and Monastery which was considered as patrons of a livestock and in particular horses. Installation of a chiming clock on it has the separate history. On a tower record is placed:“ Ioann Vasilyevich... The grand duke Vladimirsky, Moscow, Novgorod, Tver, Pskov, Vyatka, Ugrian, Perm, Bulgarian and others and vseya Russia the Sovereign at summer 30 Gosudarstvovaniya, these towers enjoined to construct, and Pyotr Anthony Solary Mediolanets, at summer from the Lord`s embodiment of 1491 did“.Frolovsky gate are long since determined by
as the main Kremlin. Over gate before revolution in an icon case there was Christ`s image - the Savior. The rumor attributed to this image many miracles. On command of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich through the Spassky Gate it was possible to enter only bare-headed, and to equestrians it was necessary besides to get down from horses and to pass pedestrian. At gate all people dawned on themselves a God banner. Here also faces of the Moscow wonder-workers Pyotr, Alexy, Jonah and Philip, and also kneeling Reverends Sergey of Radonezh and Varlaam Hutynsky were represented.
Old residents told that during Lyakholetya the Moscow prelates who dreamed one blind nun of Voznesensky of the monastery wanted to leave Moscow and, having risen from the places in tombs of Big Assumption Cathedral, went from the Kremlin. But here they were met, having kneeled down, also deceased, Sergey of Radonezh and Varlaam Hutynsky. They, comers from far away, began to beg Saint patriarchs not to leave hapless Moscow and to help it with protection. Prelates listened to entreaties and returned on the places that in difficult years to turn the prayers to God about protection of the capital.during serious Moscow big fires and destructions at Napoleonic explosions and Red Army shellings always remained
In an icon case on the Nikolskaya Tower whole and safe Nicholas The Wonderworker`s icon, the heavenly defender of military force.
the Soviet power brought considerable transformations to life behind the Kremlin walls and out of them. So, all gateway faces of Saints were removed. The State Emblems - eagles on tower spikes were replaced with ruby five-pointed stars, intra tower churches are abolished and reconstructed, traditions of reverential passing through gate to the Kremlin are lost. If you in the Soviet past would like to make the remark to the party official who passed in the car through the Spassky Gate in a cap or a cap with a cigarette in a mouth, you, most likely, not only did not understand, but, perhaps, and would arrest.Time is rapid
, and orders - are changeable. However our Kremlin is still beautiful and with anything another on light is incomparable.