How to read to the child?
Real-life communication with the book which the kid “reads“ with mother - a powerful step to development of his figurative thinking and intelligence. The good book generously fills need of the child for new information and gives him new impressions which will remain with it for the rest of life. By means of the printing word parents can find the shortest way to understanding the kid what is kindness, generosity, nobility, a true friendship.
From 0 to 5 - 6 months
Acquaintance to the book perhaps already at the most tender age (from 0 to 5 - 6 months), and is better to begin it with children`s verses and songs: babies very well feel a poetic and musical rhythm. Without understanding sense of words yet, they are already capable to react to their rhythm and intonation of a mother`s voice adequately: if mother`s words sound playfully and cheerfully, the baby smiles; if mother speaks by a serious voice, it becomes serious too. So at the kid the vital emotions are formed.
From 5 - 6 months the child begins to use
From 6 months to one year actively hands - it likes to touch various objects, to shake them, to taste. There comes time of acquaintance of the kid to books - the toys helping to develop at it tactile memory and small motility that in turn stimulates development of the speech. The child can feel such book, studying material of which it is made by means of fingers, to taste it and to consider pictures. So the kid has the first experience of communication with the book. have to be
of the Illustration in such books large, bright, it is better with various texture and whenever possible “speaking“. For example, the cow at a touch to her begins to low, and the doggie - to bark. And mother has to help the kid to learn “to communicate“ with them correctly: take the kid on hands, together leaf through the book, consider it, together press the sounding devices and rejoice. Children about one year are capable to concentrate attention on the book only within several seconds therefore for the child of this age it is possible to buy several bright books. They have to be in a zone of reach of the kid, then he with pleasure will reach from one for another. If you notice that interest of the child in books cooled down, clean them and offer new. Through some time the baby with pleasure will consider “old“ books again.
of the Book - toys can be with the text and without it. The text, in turn, has to be small and rhythmical - for example, in the form of small melodious quatrains. It is necessary to read them drawlingly and with well expressed intonation.
Now in the book market it is a lot of such books. Choosing them, in addition, it is necessary to pay attention whether the hygienic requirements imposed to such editions are observed. First of all look at material of which they are made, - it has to be safe for the child, strong and, it is desirable, washing.
From 1 to 2 years
Aged from a year to 2 - x years in a lexicon of the child all new and new words appear. The kid should systematize them, comparing with concrete objects and remembering in own way. That in consciousness of the child strong communication between a subject and its “name“ was formed, repeated repetition of this chain is required:“ subject - its name“. And here the clever, kind book comes to the rescue again.
At this age many children especially love books about animals. Studying them, the child can fall in love, for example, in a cat and any time will not notice other animals represented in the book at all. It will be again and again with pleasure to leaf through pages of the books, trying to discover in them cats. Such “love“ can be used for expansion of an outlook of the child - for example, to tell where there lives a kitty, than it eats what habits at it. So at the child the first conscious interest in the book as to a source of positive emotions and new knowledge is formed. >
to the One-year-old child it is already time for p to master also short unpretentious fairy tales with infinite repetitions - “Kolobok“ (“I left the grandmother …“) “, the Turnip“ (“Tian - we will pull“) and others. Repetitions help the child to present better a picture of the events and to acquire sense of heard.
aged to 2 - x years illustrations continue to play a large role - visions and words gradually become a single whole for the kid, and it is already a development basis visually - figurative thinking. Drawings help to form of the first books at the child exact idea of the world to which it came. That is why books for this age have to be well illustrated. And adults need to help the child to connect the picture and the text together. Upon purchase of the book or collection of fairy tales and verses pay attention to their decorating. Books for kids have to contain a minimum of the text and a maximum of illustrations. The most important requirement to drawings in books for small children - that the picture was large, colourful, picturesque, and, above all - clear to the kid. If the baby does not understand what is represented on illustrations, he will lose interest in this book.
For example when mother or the father read the text, they consider illustrations to the text and ask the child approximately such questions: “Who is drawn here? You remember, we about it read now?“ . It is possible to buy puppet theater, then it will be possible to read the text and to show at the same time characters of the fairy tale. With the same purpose it is necessary to add to the first bibliotechka of the kid the book with volume pictures. While ears of the kid with lushat the fairy tale, his mobile fingers open and close an izba door, roll on a path of Kolobok, iron a fluffy back of chanterelle. It is only necessary to watch that actions of the kid corresponded to the text read at this moment, - then the baby will better acquire contents and will not lose interest in the process of reading. You monitor also expression of his eyes and a mimicry. Emotions of the child will tell you about much: that surprised him, pleased, frightened. Observant mother after such occupations will be able to make which - what conclusions about character of the growing-up little man (as far as it sensitive, timid, susceptible etc.) .When you sit down to read to
with the child the book, do not forget to create the atmosphere corresponding to this occupation in the beginning - nothing has to distract attention of the kid from reading. For strengthening of emotional perception of the text sometimes it is possible to put quiet classical music - pick up it in advance that it approached on intonation readable work.
the Child aged from a year till two years can consider the book of 10 - 20 minutes, but do not force it it to do violently, otherwise you will cause disgust for books.
From 2 - x to 3 - x years
the Two-year-old child continues to develop the world with the help of imitation therefore reading at this age has to be followed by the image of the action happening on pages of the book. For example, mother widely opens palms and moves with fingers, showing as the butterfly flies, then inflates important cheeks and rastopyrivat hands - clumsy Toptygin hobbles on the wood. Thus in consciousness of the kid the three-dimensional picture is built: he hears what is read to it by mother about Mishka Kosolapom, sees his image in drawing and in addition by means of mother`s movements learns what is awkwardness. After the baby himself will try to represent clumsy Mishka - at this age he very much likes to be “copycat“: to jump as the hare, to wave a tail as a mouse, and to break a small egg, and then to cry over it as the grandfather with the woman …the kid already not bad tells
By three years and turns into the real why-asker - questions pour from it, in abundance, including during reading. Reading the book, explain to the child all unclear words and expressions, be only not overzealous. There is a cheerful example: mother explaining, to the child what is “tsokotukha“, went to such jungle that the child fell asleep, without having waited for the favourite fairy tale. Read the text several times - children love it. When it will be less questions, there is an opportunity to work over the maintenance of read.
of the Book - a coloring and books in which the image of objects is inserted directly into the text increase at the child motivation to reading: going from the picture by the way, the kid will do attempts “to read“ independently. > At the same age it is pertinent to p to explain
to the child as the book is arranged, - for what the cover, cover, the title page are necessary. It is possible to tell that the book, as well as at the person, has the passport - the title page, the style of clothes - a format, “the speaking cover“ which tells us about the author of this book, about the title. Ask the child to describe words what tells drawing on a cover about, and on it to assume about what this book.
Children of this age like to re-read favourite fairy tales several times. Before the kid begins to read every time, offer other fairy tale even if are sure of his refusal. At this age of the child crisis of contradictions therefore the objective can achieve by method by contradiction overwhelms: you do not want - it is not necessary, then I esteem to a doll or a bear. In a second the child will tell: “And me esteem too!“ . Children aged to three, and even till four years listen generally to a melodics of the text, a verse, they badly reproduce the subject line. And learn to react to the text, looking at you. Therefore show the emotions correctly and be not afraid to read to the baby of “Tarakanishche“ of K. Chukovsky: it to you, from height of the life experience, terribly. And for the child this poem - no more than cheerful representation with vigorous rhythmic drawing. Children at this age do not complete a logical chain and do not think, for example, of what will be with wolves if they eat each other.
From 3 - x till 6 years
During the period with 3 - x to 6 - ti years the child quickly matures, and together with it also his books mature. Pushkin`s fairy tales, Andersen, Yershov, Volkov, Bazhov, the Russian national fairy tales will be suitable for this age. That the kid did not get lost in literary events and images, ask it to retell read - all one after another, from the very beginning. It will develop his memory and logic.
the Children`s book is a harmony of the text and graphics, the text and extra text information. It is worth to remember about an illustration. At this stage it will serve as practical guidance in communication with the book. Drawing has to be calculated on long examining, to it the child comes back not once. The text which is near drawing does the last “readable“. Examining of illustrations, parallel with reading, helps to perceive read more deeply.
At this age the child can already perceive a work of art only aurally. For his best perception it is necessary to read to the kid. And in order that children accumulated not only the information about heroes and events, but also learned to connect book contents with its registration and vice versa, by all means it is necessary to consider at once after reading with children each read book in due form:
- at first mother “eye to eye“ reads to the child the text and does not show pictures;
- further together we consider a cover, then slowly we leaf through pages;
- is considered that is represented on a cover, we differentiate illustrations and inscriptions; we show to
- an order of reading inscriptions from top to down, we distinguish from inscriptions on a cover a surname of the author and the title of the book;
- we correlate a surname of the author to personal reader`s experience of the child, and the title of the book - with drawing on a cover follows
- expressively, correctly placing accents - accents. If it is difficult for descent to do it to you, previously be trained.
to Years to 5, but you should not force it - as a result of scientific researches is proved that to 6 - summer age at the child the right hemisphere which is responsible for esthetic development generally develops, and only then is connected left (mathematical), answering including for reading.
to Parents who want that reading remained to one of hobbies of the child for the rest of life should take the following important points into account.
In - the first, it is necessary to consider the psychophysical features inherent in children of each age group.
In - the second, try to read always to the kid expressively.
do not despair if you have not really good diction, the voice both other, and other is not trained. Your efforts all the same will not remain unvalued - for the child at all it turns out, but the main thing, for the child that is read together with it by mother or the person, close for it, - the kid perfectly will understand those emotions which you wanted to share with it. Read as at you it turns out, in this case it not the main thing.
B - the third, impart to the child careful attitude to the book. It is good if in a family think of books initially much. At least books have to be stored in a certain place. The kid should inspire from the earliest age that the book cannot be torn, it needs to be read or considered accurately, - it “live“, it tells us many fascinating stories. It is possible to enter houses tradition: each new book “invite“ to the house as most dear visitor, “seat“ on a place of honor on a book shelf among other books - friends. Look at illustrations to the new book, assume about whom or about what in it the story will go. It is necessary to read the new book only when the child is emotionally ready to In - the fourth, do not read together with the child hastily, turn reading into a certain ritual. The child can occupy a pose, convenient for it, - most often kids get to mother on knees. Put him so that to see reaction of the baby. Read the first time “eye to eye“, without being distracted by illustrations. Explain to the kid what the book does not love when it is interrupted. Then consider pictures and ask the kid questions to them, try to find out whether it understood what it there is a speech about, or something is not clear to it. Surely explain what the child did not understand, and read the text once again.
B - the fifth not to fight desire to read off the child, never force it to reading, And you do not look at the watch - be guided only by that, the kid or already not is interested. Never you shame the kid (especially in the presence of strangers) for the fact that he did not take already whole week the book in hand, - it can put him a mental trauma. Education by love remains a sure bet, as well as in many other situations: thumbing through favourite books embracing the child, reading, having cast together with the father, it is possible to achieve much bigger effect, than excessive severity and urgings on.
the List of references for children from 0 to 2 years:
- Any books with the “correct“ illustrations washing or from a dense cardboard.
- My First Book Series: “It I“ “Animals“ “Car“ “Account“ of “Word“ “Farm“
- Mishutka Series: “Bon appetit“ “What to put on“ “Favourite toys“ “Cheerful day“ S. Kozlov. “I on the sun lie“.
- Lessons to Kids Series:“ ““Counting rhyme““ everything sings your toys“ “Let`s play“
- the Topotushki Series: R. Sef. “Who to whom is similar“
- the For the Smallest Series: “Fairy tales in verses“ (A. Bartho, B. Zakhoder, V. Berestov, K. Chukovsky, E. Uspensky, I. Tokmakova;
- “Turnip“. The Russian national fairy tale in A. Tolstoy`s processing, “The Snow Maiden and a fox“ the Russian national fairy tale from A. N. Afonasyev`s collection.
- V. A. Stepanov. “How are you getting on? What you chew?“
- B. Zakhoder.“ Winnie`s songs - Down“.
the List of references for children from 2 - x to 4 - x years
- “The gold book for children“ “Turnip“. The Russian national fairy tale in K. Ushinsky`s processing, fig. S. Bordyuga and N. Trepenok;
- “Kolobok“. The Russian national fairy tale in K. Ushinsky`s processing, rice. And Savchenko;
- “Petushek and bean kernel“. The Russian national fairy tale in obr. O. Kapitsa. fig. of M. Rudachenko;
- S. Marshak. “Children in a cage“, fig. S. Bordyuga and N. Trepenok;
- V. Suteev. “A chicken and a duckling“ “Under a mushroom“ L. Tolstaya`s
- “Three Bears“, fig. S. BordSouth and N. Trepenok;
- S. Mikhalkov. “A stubborn young frog“, fig. of V. Suteev;
- S. Mikhalkov. “My puppy“, fig. of V. Suteev;
- S. Marshak. “Tale of a silly little mouse“
- S. Marshak. “Tale of a clever little mouse“, fig. S. Bordyuga and N. Trepenok;
- K. Chukovsky. “Phone“, fig. of V. Kanashevich;
- “Geese are Swans“. The Russian national fairy tale in obr. L. Yeliseyeva;
- K. Chukovsky. “A fly - a tsokotukha“, fig. of V. Konashevich;
- K. Chukovsky. “Tarakanishche“, fig. of V. Konashevich;
- K. Chukovsky. “Crocodile“, fig. V. Suteev;
- V. Suteev. “Uncle Mischa“, fig. V. Suteev;
- B. Zakhoder. “The bear is Toptyzhka“, fig. of G. Bedarev;
- A.S. Pushkin. “Curved seashore“
- I. A. Ishchuk. We read according to pictures, V. N. Kosygin`s
- .“ I rub - la - la“, Articulation gymnastics,
- S. Marshak. “The cheerful account“
the List of references for children from 3 - x till 6 years
K to above-mentioned works increase:
- “Little Red Riding Hood“, retelling L. Kuznetsova, fig. of T. Woolf.
- “Three pigs“, M. Tarlovskogo Lane, fig. of T. Woolf.
- “Puss in Boots“ of L. Yakhnin Lane, fig. of T. Woolf.
- “Cinderella“, translation A. Ganzen, fig. of T. Woolf.
- “Sleeping Beauty“, retelling L. Yakhnina, fig. of T. Woolf.
- “Tin tell-tale“, S. Letova`s retelling, fig. of T. Woolf.
- “Little Mermaid“, translation A. Ganzen, fig. of T. Woolf.
- of “Ognivo“, L. Kuznetsov`s retelling, fig. of T. Woolf.
- “New Year`s fairy tale“, prod. - in “Samovar“, 1996.