Inoculations for adults: whether a vaccine for the traveler of
you Go to business trip, on a visit to relatives, or just you want far from frosts, under palm trees to meet New year - anyway, preparing for travel, it is necessary to think over not only a route and quantity of baggage, but also to specify what diseases trap you in the distant country. Whether it is possible to protect himself from problems with health in advance? > >
of the Country differ in p in i from each other not only the people living in them, languages and cultural traditions. Everyone has characteristic infectious diseases, sometimes life-threatening. In the Russian Federation the law according to which all Russians going to the countries unsuccessful in the epidemic relation, have to be warned about possible risk of infection works. Tourists are warned about the diseases extended there, about their symptoms, measures of personal prevention and actions which need to be undertaken if the person did not manage to avoid infection nevertheless. Leaving to such country it is necessary to receive the document on preventive inoculations. Moreover, in case of refusal from necessary inoculations, departure can be forbidden (according to the Federal law “About immunoprevention of infectious diseases“ of 1998) .About what diseases there is a speech
? First of all - about yellow fever. This especially dangerous viral disease which conducts to a severe damage of kidneys, a liver, a spleen and marrow. The illness is followed by hemorrhagic manifestations: hemorrhages and bleedings in various bodies and fabrics. The incubatory period (time from the infection moment before emergence of the first symptoms of an illness) - 3 - 6 days, is more rare - till 9 - 10 days. Everything begins with increase temperature: for 1 - 2 day it reaches 39 - 40 degrees With, decreases in 3 - 4 days and rises in 1 - 2 days again. On 3 - 4 - y day of an illness comes the second phase of a disease: skin to become pale, jaundice joins, begin to bleed a gum, there are nasal bleedings, and in the emetic masses and excrements blood impurity also appears. At the same time the liver and a spleen increase, attempts to feel them cause pain. Share of deaths at yellow fever - from 5 - 10% to 25 - 40%.
the Main natural tank and a source of the causative agent of yellow fever of a monkey, but fever can be transmitted also from sick people. Infection occurs in the transmissivny way, i.e. through a sting of an insect - a carrier of causative agents of an infection. Such carriers are some species of the mosquitoes living in the tropical countries. Sometimes the disease is transmitted in the contact way - at hit of droplets of the blood infected with a virus to the injured skin.the Susceptibility of people to yellow fever is high
, but post-infectious immunity which is developed after the postponed disease remains till 6 years and more.
of the Zone of risk
In Russia yellow fever does not meet. It treats group of so-called endemic diseases which territory of distribution is limited defined prirodno - climatic conditions. It is widespread in South America, Central, Western, Southern and partly to East Africa - in a zone of rain rainforests. Incidence increases right after the period of rains when population of mosquitoes as much as possible increases. The outbreaks of the yellow fever “brought“ from these places were registered in Spain, Portugal, France, Italy. 3 cases of delivery of a disease to the Netherlands, Belgium and the USA, from them 2 - with a lethal outcome are over the last 5 years registered.by
notes activization of the natural centers of yellow fever in recent years. As it treats quarantine diseases, according to the International health regulations, each state is obliged to inform immediately neighboring countries and WHO on all cases.to
in a number of the countries of Africa and South America at entrance needs presentation of the international certificate on an inoculation against yellow fever. In Africa: Benin, Burkina - Faso, Gabon, Ghana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Kot - D`Ivoir, Cameroon, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, San - Volume and Prinsipi, Togo, It is central - the African Republic. In South America - French Guiana.
But also other countries in the territory of which there are areas with high risk of infection are. In Africa it: Angola, Burundi, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra - Leon, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Chad, Equatorial Guinea. In South America: Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana, Colombia, Panama, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Ecuador. Here do not insist on submission of the international certificate. Nevertheless before their visit the yellow fever inoculation is very recommended.
the Saving inoculationImmunoprofilaktik`s
- the most well-tried remedy of protection against yellow fever. Russia does an inoculation to all, going to the endemic countries. The vaccine of yellow fever live dry“ is for this purpose applied by “ (it is made in Russia). The vaccine is made on the basis of fabric of the chicken embryos infected with the weakened viruses of yellow fever. It is intended for immunization of adults and children, since 9 - monthly age. The vaccine is entered once - hypodermically into the subscapular area not later than 10 days before departure to the endemic area. Practically in 100% of cases the single inoculation in 10 days causes development of immunity lasting 10 - 15 years. Repeated vaccination is carried out in 10 years.For persons 15 years are more senior than
the instruction allows vaccination against yellow fever at the same time (in one day) with other inoculations of a national calendar of inoculations, on condition of introduction of preparations to different parts of a body. For children till 15 years the interval between the previous other infection inoculation and vaccination against yellow fever has to be not less than 2 - x months.
At some people in the place of introduction local vaccine-challenged reaction - reddening and hypostasis on a site to 2,5 cm in the diameter can develop. It is shown in 12 - 24 hours after an inoculation and disappears for 2 - 3 days. In exclusively exceptional cases the consolidation of hypodermic cellulose which is followed by an itch, pain, increase in regionarny lymph nodes develops. At 5 - 10% imparted for 4 - 10 days the general vaccine-challenged reaction develops. It is followed by temperature increase to 38,5 degrees With and, at the same time the indisposition, a headache and dizziness are felt as a fever. Nevertheless, such reaction is considered safe, as well as and takes place in the first case during 3 - x days.But vaccine-challenged complications of allergic character are sometimes possible
. Contraindications to an inoculation are: an allergy to protein of egg in the anamnesis; primary (congenital) and secondary (acquired) immunodeficiencies (at the last it is possible to take root not earlier than in 12 months after recovery (the end of treatment); sharp infectious and noninfectious diseases, an exacerbation of chronic diseases - inoculations carry out not earlier than in 1 month after recovery (remission); pregnancy. However, on supervision of foreign experts if the vaccine is entered to the pregnant woman who is not guessing the situation yet it is yet not a reason for interruption of this pregnancy since development of a fruit at the same time does not suffer. The concrete decision on need of carrying out an inoculation to pregnant women, and some other groups of persons (to patients with chronic diseases, malignant diseases of blood and new growths, etc.) living in areas unsuccessful on yellow fever, depends on degree of risk of a disease.Vaccination is carried out by
in immunoprevention offices (inoculative offices) lechebno - the preventive establishments having permission to carrying out inoculations against yellow fever. In day of an inoculation the doctor conducts survey and survey of the imparted faces with obligatory thermometry. Given about carrying out vaccination (revaccination) enter in the international certificate on vaccination or a revaccination which is filled in in English or the French, and also Russian languages. To calculate date of the introduction of the certificate on an inoculation in force, it is necessary to add to date of its carrying out 10 days. It means that only in 10 days after an inoculation it is possible to go to the country of appointment.
Thus, the yellow fever inoculation is obligatory at departure to some countries of Africa and South America. The list of desirable inoculations against other infectious diseases can be expanded depending on the country of visit. For example, the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia recommends to pilgrims or going to this country for seasonal works to take root against diphtheria and a meningococcal infection.