The keeper of domestic masterpieces of
Zamoskvorechye - the old suburban district of Moscow. In the middle of the 19th century here inexpensive, free lands which were actively bought up by the Moscow merchants among whom it was possible to meet of Bakhrushiny, Prostyakov, Tretyakov still remained.
Here, in Zamoskvorechye, the State Tretyakov gallery - the largest museum of domestic art is.
Very few people reflected that this museum was created by one person - the merchant Pavel Mikhaylovich Tretyakov (1832 - 1898) having carried out within 20 years really huge work on construction of the building of art gallery in the small estate for Mosva - the river and having placed in it a collection of the most valuable works of domestic art which it collected about 35 years.
Pavel Mikhaylovich Tretyakov is the collector
Pavel Mikhaylovich Tretyakov there is a founder of the Tretyakov gallery - all life remained in merchants, adequately representing trade business of rather poor great-grandfather - the merchant Eliseus Martynovich who arrived to Moscow in 1774 from Maloyaroslavets. Being the representative of the fourth merchant generation of Muscovites - Tretyakov, it considerably increased the capital of the ancestors, was imenit and it is respected in the merchant environment for the honesty and the greatest modesty.
it laid the Foundation of the collection in 1856, in 19 years, having bought by chance two pictures. He brought prints and ancient books from Sukharevki, went to St. Petersburg to visit the museums. Its tendency - to collect the fullest collection of the best works of domestic artists which in several years made more than 1000 exhibits yielded the fruits: the system of consecutive development of all Russian art - from Old Russian icons before the first works of a Petrovsky era, from the academic and realistic painting to a modernist style of the end of XIX - the beginning of the XX century was built. The collection collected by P. Tretyakov was big incentive to creation of such great cloths as “Boyar Morozova“ of V. Surikov and “Religious procession in the Kursk province“ of I. Repin, and also Perov, Polenov, Levitan, Arkhipov Korovin`s remarkable works, etc.
Subsequently the well-known cloth “Christophany to the people“ A. Ivanova also came to the museum.
Phenomenal abilities of P. Tretyakov - the collector: native wit, perfect taste in combination with distinguished intuition in the choice of works - struck contemporaries: it selected masterpieces.
the Importance conceived and nobility of its intentions - to collect a domestic collection for the people - played a considerable role that from all Moscow collectors only to P. Tretyakov the right was granted to the first to select works directly in masterful artists or at exhibitions before their opening.Should note
that brothers Tretyakov did not study anywhere: they got only a house education, but as Alexandre Benois noticed:“ Tretyakov at heart and to knowledge was a scientist“. He understood music, loved theater, well knew literature. It helped it with acquisition of a collection.
Construction of the building of the Tretyakov gallery
the Basis for creation of gallery was Pyotr and Sergey Tretyakov` small old mansion which brothers bought from merchants Shestov in Lavrushinsky Lane (in Tolmachakh). In 1865 Pavel Tretyakov married Vera Mamontova (Savva Mamontov`s cousin - the owner of Abramtzevo) who became the faithful assistant in its noble cause. The family expanded, and for placement of new pictures there was no place. Therefore from 1872 to 1874, in an estate garden the architect A. S. Kaminsky (the sister`s husband) built the first premises of gallery with big two halls for 1500 works.
B 80 - e years the two-storeyed building built especially for gallery surrounded a house already from three parties, and meeting in it was given the status of the museum. And free and open for all. After death of the brother Sergey in 1892 Pavel Mikhaylovich makes the decision to present both collections (the and the brother) to the hometown. “Pavel and Sergey Tretyakov` Moscow city art gallery“ opened the doors on August 15, 1893. The emperor granted it the nobility, but Pavel Mikhaylovich told:“ Was born the merchant, the merchant and I will die“, and accepted a rank of the honourable citizen with pleasure. Tretyakov to the death sponsored the child. He died on December 4, 1898, having lived worthy life. The quantity of exhibits of its gallery passed for 2000 both constantly increased, and now makes about 140000 units. Therefore more than a half of all collection of the postrevolutionary period is placed on Crimean to the Shaft in new showrooms.the Fantastic facade of Tretyakov gallery
the Main facade of the building of the Tretyakov gallery was executed by
known “the artist - the storyteller“ Victor Vasnetsov already at the beginning of the XX century (from 1902 to 1904) . The participant of the Abramtsevsky circle in which ideas of folk art intertwined with new spirits of the times that will be called the neorussian style subsequently, he created as if a facade - an emblem, closed three old separate facades a uniform decorative wall, like a curtain, and issued by the decorative elements borrowed from Old Russian architecture of a pre-Pertine era. the Entrance is issued by
in the form of three fantastic vasnetsovsky towers with peaked roofs, the top of a wall is topped on the center with a keeled frame in the form of the kokoshnik bordering the ancient coat of arms of Moscow with Georgy Pobedonosts. The wide frieze with a donative inscription is filled with an intricate ligature in the spirit of prompts of Old Russian books. This architectural composition can be considered rather as a metaphor of the Russian antiquity.
In the yard of the Tretyakov gallery is costed by a remarkable monument to P. M. Tretyakov of the sculptor A. P. Kibalnikov.
Nikola`s Church in Tolmachakh near the estate after reconstruction of gallery was included into a museum complex and itself became part of the museum.
A at Tretyakov gallery the people crowd again...