It begins to be formed in a week after conception, and in half an hour after the delivery, having executed all the functions, “retires“. What is represented by a placenta and why it is also important to monitor its development, as well as growth of your kid?
Hardly bright spermatozoon achieved the desired objectives, hardly the ovum began to share and grow as together with the kid in your body absolutely new body - a placenta, a link between mother and the child appears. After conception in an organism the enzymes loosening an internal mucous membrane of a uterus are produced and in its wall there is a small cavity filled with blood - here and the impregnated ovum falls. From now on she will receive oxygen and food directly from a maternal organism, and in 12 - 16 weeks of a body of mother and the kid will begin to be reported directly through a placenta - first “lodge“ of the child. It will grow together with your kid, satisfying all his vital needs.
the Placenta connects by
of Function of a placenta among themselves mother and the child, being attached by one party to uterus walls by means of thin fibers, and other “party“, umbilical cord vessels, - to the child. So it provides close interaction of native organisms.
- the Barrier
the Placenta passes in the child`s organism protective substances from mother`s blood, providing to the baby immunity. At the same time it protects it from penetration of some toxins, the making medicines (not all), and also aggressive antibodies from mother. She does not allow a maternal organism to apprehend a fruit as an alien body and to tear away it. Unfortunately, the placentary barrier with ease is broken by narcotic substances, alcohol, nicotine, components of many drugs and viruses.
On one blood vessels of a placenta to the kid oxygen arrives, and on “next“ - in a body of mother carbon dioxide is removed. by
Through placenta cages from blood of the woman filter nutrients - in such “ready“ and digestible look they arrive to the kid. Through the next vessels of a placenta the child “returns“ in mother`s blood everything that his organism did not acquire (activity waste). by
in a placenta develop progestina, estrogen, HGCh - the hormones necessary for incubation of a fruit, its development and the normal course of pregnancy.
As the placenta
To 8 develops - y weeks there is a development of a horion - the predecessor of a placenta. All necessary hormones are produced so far by a yellow body (the place where there was an ovum earlier). The embryo eats at the expense of ovum resources.
of 7 - 8 weeks. Recession of hormonal production of a yellow body begins, its function is undertaken by the developing placenta. The embryo eats already at the expense of a uterus.
of 9 - 10 weeks. The placenta undertakes function of management of a metabolism of a maternal organism, provoking in it the changes necessary for life of the developing fruit. Toxicosis at mother can amplify.
of 11 - 12 weeks. The embryo “becomes“ a fruit. Formation of a placenta is not finished yet, however the crumb receives food already from mother`s blood.
of 15 - 16 weeks. Formation of a placenta comes to an end. At this time, having determined the level of hormone of an estriol in urine, it is possible to estimate work of a fetoplatsentarny complex (system “a placenta - a fruit“).
That doctorswant to know about a placenta
This parameter as doctors, “ultrasonic“ speak, that is it depends on density of the structures of a placenta defined at ultrasonic research.
are Distinguished by four degrees of a maturity of a placenta:of
- is normal till 30 weeks of pregnancy zero degree of a maturity of a placenta has to be defined; the first degree is considered
- admissible with 27 - y on 34 - yu week;
- second - with 34 - y on 39 - yu; since 37 - y weeks the third degree of a maturity of a placenta can be defined by
at the end of pregnancy there comes the so-called physiological aging of a placenta which is followed by reduction of the area of its exchange surface, emergence of sites of adjournment of salts.the Place of an attachment
on the help of ultrasonography (about a placenta arrangement at the uncomplicated course of pregnancy see above).Thickness
is defined by
by means of ultrasonic research Too - platsentometriya: after establishment of the place of an attachment of a placenta the site where it has the largest size which is defined is found. Thickness of this body as it was already told, continuously grows till 36 - 37 weeks of pregnancy (to this term it makes from 20 to 40 mm). Then its growth stops, and further it either decreases, or remains at the same level.Everything is reparable
waiting for childbirth all alarms and fears future mothers connect first of all with the child, however a healthy condition of a placenta as main “accumulator“ for the developing fruit, not less important. Quite often complications of pregnancy connect with an afterbirth. And still you should not be frightened deviations in work of a placenta: even if the doctor will find in you any violations, it is easier to correct a situation and to affect this “temporary body“, undoubtedly, than the child.
If the doctor suspects
- Predlezhany placentae , it means that it is located in the bottom of a uterus, as if blocking an entrance (normal has to settle down on one of uterus walls).
I that now? The similar deviation threatens with nothing to the kid. The most important - not to provoke bleeding to which the uterus when prelying a placenta is located. Alas, it is necessary to wait a little with sex life, and also to postpone visit of a sauna, acceptance of hot bathtubs and to reduce physical activities to a minimum. In maternity hospital it is better to lay down for 1 - 1,5 weeks before date of estimated childbirth.
As we will give birth? Prelying of a placenta happens partial and full. At full Cesarean section is shown. If prelying partial, then the decision on operation is made by the doctor how the placenta settles down.
- placenta Increment.
of the Fiber which the placenta fastens to uterus walls usually connect to its mucous internal membrane, and at the time of delivery easily exfoliate from walls. But it happens that they get into deeper muscular layers. This anomaly meets quite seldom.
I that now? It is necessary to limit physical activities and sex life.
As we will give birth? As the similar diagnosis most often can be made only at the time of delivery, the first periods proceed in the natural way, and on the third phase, after the birth of the kid, the obstetrician should separate a placenta manually. It becomes under the general anesthesia, and you will feel nothing.
- Placentary insufficiency. If blood circulation of vessels of mother is broken by
, there is a risk that the kid will receive less necessary food and the placenta will not manage to protect completely it from harmful effects from the outside. This diagnosis can be made from 8 weeks of pregnancy; it is diagnosed on ultrasonography or Doppler research of vessels.
I that now? For improvement of blood supply of a fruit of mother recommend frequent and long walks, a set of exercises and a course of treatment (thermal procedures on okolopochechny area, a magnesium electrophoresis; reception of vasodilating preparations and a beta - mimetik, a geparinoterapiya). Besides, the diet rich with protein is appointed (fish, cottage cheese and dairy products, boiled meat).
As we will give birth? Normally, natural way. However be ready that you should lay down on preservation and to complete a course of special therapy.
- Premature otsloyka of a placenta. Premature any period which began before the third phase of childbirth can be considered as
. It is diagnosed by the doctor by results of research. Symptoms to which it is necessary to pay attention, - sharp pain in the bottom of a stomach, bleedings from a vagina, sharp fall of temperature and pressure against pallor, short wind, perspiration and increase of pulse. This pathology often has hereditary roots therefore ask the mother whether was at it such problem.
I that now? It is necessary to go to hospital and to complete a therapy course.
As we will give birth? If the otsloyka of a placenta began in labor till their third period, most likely, it will be offered to you Caesarian.
- Placentary heart attack.
This term still are called by a necrosis, that is necrosis of a site of a placenta. Its blood supply in this case worsens, and the kid can receive less the food relying it and oxygen.
I that now? The drugs improving blood circulation and additional food will help to make active “working“ sites of a placenta.
As we will give birth? It is necessary to be adjusted psychologically on Caesarian. Choosing maternity hospital, be guided by where there are chambers of intensive therapy for newborns and the most modern equipment.
- Presenilation of a placenta.
By the end of term of pregnancy of function of a placenta gradually weaken. Your kid is going to be born, and his first “lodge“ lives the term to go “to rest“. But it happens that process of aging of a placenta begins too early, and it cannot provide the child with all necessary substances any more. Future mothers smoking and fond of diets are inclined to it.
I that now? In 9 cases from the 10th the doctor will send you for preservation. In house conditions at the accelerated maturing of a placenta and its wear to you can appoint drug treatment (“Kurantil“, “Trental“).
As we will give birth? In most cases childbirth proceeds in the natural way, however the growing old placenta can begin to exfoliate before the put term, and then it will be offered to you Caesarian.