Rus Articles Journal

Seigniorial city estate of the 17th century: Averkiya Kirillov`s chambers

the Ancient corner of Moscow

Bersenevskaya Embankment received the name by last name the boyar Bersenya - Beklemishev, one of the most visible representatives of a seigniorial sort of medieval Russia. The embankment is small: it lasts from an arrow of the artificial island to Kamenny Bridge. To the embankment there is a Variety theater, to the right of it, opposite to the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, there is a tiny ancient house of unusual architecture flickering in the red color among snow-covered trees as the small palace from the wonderful fairy tale. These are ancient chambers of the dumny clerk Averkiya Kirillov in the seigniorial estate XVII of century.

In this small corner of the ancient capital from time immemorial the monastery of “Nikola the Old“ with wooden church of Nikola on Bersenev was. From this church, at the time of Ivan III`s government, in 1493, the heavy fire in Moscow began. Then burned out Zamoskvorechye, Great posad, and fire was thrown to the Kremlin. Therefore the tsar enjoined to demolish a set of constructions and to lay out grand-ducal gardens on coast of the Moskva River. However the part of the monastery remained and subsequently entered a complex of the estate of Averkiya Kirillov.

the Monarchic gardener

in the middle of the 17th century at government of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich monarchic gardens knew

the boyar Averky Kirillov who is brought closer to the tsar who since 1677 becomes the dumny clerk (the high official). He was famous and dear person in the most eminent circles of the Moscow nobility of that time. It is enough to tell that the prince Lev Kirillovich Naryshkin is Peter I`s uncle and the brother of the queen Natalya Naryshkina - was his friend. They together fought against the tsarevna Sofya who was a stepsister of Peter I. To become regentshy juvenile Petr and to rule the country samolichno, Sofya provoked the first revolt of Sagittariuses of 1682. Sagittariuses interrupted many relatives Naryshkin who were in power and dealt shortly with their supporters. Lev Kirillovich Naryshkin by miracle survived. To Averky Kirillov the destiny was more cruel: he was killed with Sagittariuses in the Kremlin. The estate and the house passed to successors.

As was built during a pre-Pertine era

Averky Kirillov lived in the house 26 years. Builders are masters, spreading the brick arches of chambers, marked an expiration date of works: The 7165th year on old chronology that corresponds to 1656 - 1657 A.D.

During a pre-Pertine era planning of such houses, or chorus was standard: with the outer entrance hall extended in depth, on both sides from which vaulted premises were placed.“ Wooden horomny construction“ then was not encouraged any more: were afraid of the fires. Therefore the house was difficult from a stone, and Nikola`s temple near the house which is earlier restored in a tree was also reconstructed in a stone. From initial registration of chambers only two lateral facades which not bad fitted into the general architectural image of new style remained keeled platbands, columns - jugs and other decor relating to Old Russian option now.

the Restored, elegant temple of Nikola appears as

at us same now what it was put in the 17th century of stone affairs by the master using all variety of receptions of brick decorative furniture of the time inherited from masters of wooden architecture with a set of kokoshniks and beautiful platbands, having added this ancient motive with a massive “red“ porch with heavy kuvshinoobrazny support. Unfortunately, the covered transition to chambers and a belltower till our time did not remain. Since 1992 the temple is returned to Russian Orthodox Church.

New architectural tendencies

at the end of XVII - the beginning of the XVIII century the architecture of Russia undergoes considerable change. This new round of architecture fell on time when in medieval, based on religious outlook the Russia, the secular culture which came from the West, with elements dominating there modern Baroque style arises. In combination with Old Russian architecture these innovations yielded amazing results, such as, in the style of naryshkinsky baroque which arose on the Russian soil (church of the Cover in Filyakh), or in architecture of the Menshikovy tower of Pyotr Zarudny with tendencies of “more western“ baroque.

the Facade of the house of Averkiya Kirillov was constructed by

at the beginning of the XVIII century in the spirit of the times - “under new style“.

by

To the central entrance brought a wide front staircase with an arch canopy on heavy consoles. Windows of the second floor decorated white stone baroque platbands with semicircular top. But the most refined and completely sustained in Baroque style is the top part of a facade with an attic (superstructure) trimmed with a set of elegant baroque details with a difficult pediment - above and volutes (helicoid decorative details) - below.

such we see this estate and today: in a combination old and new, the restored and repeatedly restored, being considerable particle of our history, our cultural heritage.

also the fact that the house was empty a little Is pleasant

. In the second half of XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century there was “A senatorial express house“ here. In war of 1812 it burned, but was restored. Since 1880 in the building the Imperial archaeological society headed by the count A. S was located. Uvarov who much made for preservation of monuments not only Moscow, but also all Russia. Last century in this complex of buildings there were Central restoration workshops, scientific research institute of museology, scientific research institute of culture. Now in chambers the Russian institute of cultural science works.