Diagnosis of diseases of mammary glands of
the Mammology - the field of clinical medicine dealing with the problems connected with various diseases of mammary glands. Various, and not just oncological.These problems in the last decades draw with
the increasing attention of scientists and the public, become more and more actual. It is enough to tell that the breast cancer in 1996 came out in Moscow on top on frequency among all other oncological diseases, having overtaken a stomach cancer, a cancer of a lung both other, and other. And it is observed not only in Moscow, but also in tens of regions of Russia. As for other diseases of this body, their number in tens of times exceeds number of oncological cases.
knows Long ago that diagnosis of a disease at early stages of development allows to cure the vast majority of patients. Experts established that if the malignant tumor of a mammary gland does not exceed 2 cm, then more than 90% of women recover by application of the sparing methods of surgical treatment with preservation of part of a breast.
Thus, to the forefront the organization and methods of diagnosis of diseases of a mammary gland, especially cancer, in early stages of development come.
the Basis of organizational actions is medical examination of the female population which has to be carried out according to a state program and in a certain sequence.
1 - y a stage - preventive clinical inspection of all women who addressed in lechebno - preventive city institutions concerning any disease which is carried out in viewing offices, offices of gynecologists, surgeons, endocrinologists, therapists both other, and other. Clinical inspection provides survey and a palpation of mammary glands, specification of character of complaints to a condition of body.
2 - y a stage - inspection in X-ray mammography offices and offices of ultrasonic diagnostics of policlinics of district and city submission in which are examined:
- in - the first, women at whom any changes in mammary glands on 1 - m an inspection stage are revealed;
- in - the second, women are more senior than 40 years once in 2 years with the preventive purpose;
- in - the third, the woman with a disease high risk (heredity on the direct maternal line, early first abortions, some gynecologic and endocrinological diseases, injuries, stresses, an ecological situation, etc.) ;
- in - the fourth, the women who addressed in offices with already available changes of glands.
In mammography offices, besides mammograms which are made on special x-ray devices and ultrasonic inspection, conduct special researches: a duktografiya (research of lacteal channels of gland by means of contrast substances), a pnevmokistografiya (removal of liquid from a cyst with the subsequent introduction of air to the emptied cyst with production of a x-ray picture), a punktsionny biopsy (a puncture of nodal education with the subsequent research under a microscope of cellular structure of a punktat).
All held medical diagnostic events allow to diagnose in due time various diseases of mammary glands in early stages of development, to carry out effective treatment, including cancer, to carry out dispensary supervision and treatment at good-quality pathological processes.
In difficult cases of differential diagnostics patients go for the specified research in a mammology clinic where all methods of diagnostics are carried out, and also surgical treatment of good-quality nodal educations in out-patient conditions is carried out.
At last, a necessary stage of medical process are rehabilitation actions, especially after operations. Work of an office of rehabilitation in a mammology clinic allows to restore quicker physical and that is especially important, psycho - an emotional condition of the woman who had a disease of mammary glands.