Theater in Chamberlain, or the planet by the name of Schechtel of
Theatrical buildings are the person of the capital, its architectural ornament. Constructed by the best architects, they are national cultural property of all country. In one of such buildings in Kamergersky Lane since 1898 the Moscow Art Theatre, in itself the phenomenon unique in the Russian art is located. Moscow Art Theatre the people`s artist of the USSR Oleg Tabakov heads today.
of Tens of names of one lane
the Lane this small - from the Tverskaya to Bolshaya Dmitrovka. About ten, and even are less than houses on one party, as much on another. And not always it was Chamberlain. Called it so because there lived here once three chamberlains: S. Golitsyn, V. Streshnev and P. Beketov. Whether costed efforts... Another matter, earlier it was Yegoryevsk, so it on the monastery and Saint Georgy`s church, or was called as Spassky later - besides on Church of the Transfiguration. And that was registered still Newspaper - considered it as continuation of the lane that on other side of the Tverskaya leaves towards Big Nikitskaya. For the same reason called also Kuznetsk - as continuation of Kuznetsky Bridge. From - for the kvasnik living once here responded to the name Kvass, and from - for Odoevsky` palace accepted also this surname. For most of Muscovites of the last century is journey of Art theater. Now lane again Chamberlain.
When MHTa here yet was not
Odoevsky` Palace stood just on that place where Moscow Art Theatre took place much later. Years hundred owned the palace representatives of a nice Russian sort. Then it began to pass from hand to hand, and after the next reconstruction in the building there were an auditorium and a scene on which there were performances of theater of Korsh, the private Russian opera of Savva Mamontov. However the high spiritual saturation was present at this house not always. At the end of the century before last, passing by it, Muscovites dawned on themselves a God banner. Still, “The cabaret - a puff“ which was directed by the Frenchman from Algeria Charles Omon “was famous“ for a striptease. In 1896 in the building there was a fire which managed to be extinguished with huge work: spoke, the Lord punished an institution for immorality.
Honour - more expensively than money
several years Later the Frenchman refused a tenancy, than and the manufacturer and the patron Savva Morozov who shouldered economic cares of the Moscow Art Theatre coming into force used. He signed the lease and undertook to finance all construction and finishing works. The person S. Morozov, of course, was well-founded, but was able to count money. And for Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich - Danchenko in success of their new business of means played the major role. Here is how the grandson S remembered. Morozov about a meeting of these three people with the famous architect Fedor (Frants) Schechtel to whom they wanted to charge reconstruction: “... Stanislavsky and Nemirovich anxiously exchanged glances. What price will be jacked up by the famous architect? But did not decide to ask directly somehow. Morozov did not concern this question also. After a painful pause he at last uttered: “As for financial side of business...“. Here Schechtel it is precautionary raised a hand: “About it, sirs, we will not speak.the Order of the theater decorating Moscow I will read
for honor to execute gratuitously“. Stanislavsky and Nemirovich froze. Morozov burst out laughing: “Take a look at our sort! A surname Schechtel foreign, and scope at Franz Osipowitsch truly Russian!“Art public theater
Construction of theater began
in February, 1902, and in October Muscovites were present at a premiere. Moscow “Courier“ wrote:“ Taste and simplicity offered each other hands and, calling original generosity of the patron on help, created a masterpiece“. In theater everything was unusual. The audience with admiration examined registration of entrances over which lamps - lamps with arc lamps burned. And even doors with unusual handles and square windows in oak frames looked extraordinary and attractively. And over the right entrance there was a high relief of the sculptor Anna Golubkina with the image of the swimmer overcoming waves later. But it was not all. Hall... Breath intercepted - is so fine and with such taste it was issued: lit faintly - pink small lamps on each side and the same small lamps collected on a ceiling in a chandelier, sustained in elegant pastel tones, with a curtain darkly - brown color which did not fall from above, and dispersed on two half in different directions. And how many carpets, and what oak furniture... Dressing rooms for actors were magnificent, the rotating scene equipped with the unique mechanism created on Schechtel`s project is unusual - light on it the electric grand piano operated. Of course, the building became a sample of a combination of theatrical and architectural ideas! a celebration
But not building uniform the theater is live
of the Russian scene. The main thing - it the magnificent room was intended for the best what was known by Russia for all history of existence in it professional theater of the collective headed by ingenious Russian masters K. Stanislavsky and V. Nemirovich - Danchenko. Whether yes only Russia admired this theater? The glory about it overstepped far for it the limits. Therefore, having highly appreciated beauty of interiors, the audience right there forgot about surroundings, taken by that shrill truth that was born on a scene of the Moscow public theater. However, soon from the name this word had to be removed - the theater could not accomodate everyone. On a scene of MHTa were for the first time put on the play Chekhov, Gorky, Andreyev, Gogol, Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, Ostrovsky, Turgenev, Bulgakov`s works are put... Not to mention world dramatic art. And that for a miracle there were in this theater actors: Moskvin, Kachalov, Luga, Leonidov, Hmelev, Massalsky, Livanov, Mushrooms, Yanshin, Ktorov, Stanitsin, Knipper - Chekhov, Lilina, Androvskaya, Tarasova!
. And Stanislavsky! What great actor he was!.
the Planet by the name of Schechtel
But time goes, and buildings of theaters grow old. In 1974 it was decided to carry out reconstruction and restoration of the Moscow Art Theatre. The building was divided vertically in the area of a curtain, and then the scenic box was removed on 11,9 meters. The free space between a scene and the hall was protected with walls (Later in a complex of a new scene Oleg Efremov`s dressing room was restored, there are a lot of years directing theater). Room space increased, but from Chamberlain it is absolutely imperceptible. Interiors of theater as they were conceived by Schechtel, kept color scale, ornaments. The lane became pedestrian, it was paved plates, established a monument to A. P. Chekhov. Here in due time nobody took care only of the architect. As the grandson, the performer Vadim Tonkov told it, in 1917 the grandfather was expelled from own house. “Fedor Osipovich long wandered on different apartments, did not find a haven on Small Dmitrovka yet: in the apartment of the younger daughter, my mother... Here in 1926 he also died“. And in many years the planet to which appropriated a name of the author of the project of the building of the well-known Art theater - Schechtel was open.