Moscow classicism of Vasily Bazhenov: Pashkov the house on Moss
Who does not know Pashkov the house at the corner of Moss and Znamenka, erected on the ancient Vagankovsky hill opposite to Borovitsky gate of the Moscow Kremlin. It was constructed for the grandson striker Peter I, Labe - the guardsman, the rich landowner P. Pashkov in 1784 - 1788 by the great Russian architect Vasily Ivanovich Bazhenov (1737 - 1799) - one of creators of the Russian classical style.with
the House - the palace executed in the best traditions of the Italian classical architecture and trimmed in palace execution struck Muscovites so that they were flown down by crowds here to admire its harmonous and festive look.
the Main yard with front doors was located behind the building.
In the same place all auxiliary constructions which on quality of architectural execution were not inferior to the main house were.
Before revolution in Pashkov`s house. Here, in particular, Dostoyevsky and Gorky worked. On this base the State library of V. I. Lenin which new modern building was built in 30 - e years of the 20th century (architects V. Shchuko and V. Gelfreykh) on Moss, near Pashkov`s house was created subsequently.
In war of 1812 Pashkov`s house not strongly suffered from the fire, but Pashkov` archive - Apraksinykh was lost completely, and the authorship of the architect was established later. On several researches, agreed in opinion that Pashkov`s house projected and Vasily Ivanovich Bazhenov built.
“The sexton`s son transported to Moscow it cultivated the art taste on monuments White stone“. The pupil of the architect Ukhtomsky in Moscow and Chevakinsky in St. Petersburg who is much presented by nature Bazhenov graduated from the Moscow university and the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts in which he came to the moment of its basis. Then it was sent to training to France and Italy.Bazhenov was trained in
In France in the Parisian academy of Arts, further worked hard in Italy, won a rank of professor of the Roman Academy, became the member of Academy of Florence and Bologna. However on return to Russia in 1765 (at the age of 28 years) its creative destiny develops tragically.
the New structure of the Russian academy made it in academicians, but professor on what it had all reasons, it was not made. Instead of the educated I. Shuvalov academy I. Betsky - the person far from art directed now, and Bazhenov soon appeared out of academy.the project of the Grand Kremlin Palace Offered by Catherine II was not carried out by
, and the grandiose palace complex to Tsaritsyno built in fantastic russko - Gothic forms was not pleasant to the empress, was not finished, and the architect fell into disgrace.
In St. Petersburg Bazhenov built the building of district court on Foundry, Mikhailovsky Castle kordegardiya, in Moscow, except the constructions listed earlier, one of its main structures is the most known house of Yushkov on Myasnitskaya.
Bazhenov was one of creators of style of the Russian classicism. Therefore symmetry and steadiness of separate parts, as well as a three-part classical form of construction, are observed fully here. Three volumes - central, higher and two lateral, lower, - are connected to the center in a whole the galleries proceeding in the form of windows both in wings and on a socle of the main house. The role of wings is emphasized with triangular classical pediments which sidelines of slopes conduct to an arbor - a belvedere, decorating the central part of the palace where earlier there was a statue. The socle of the palace is a little pushed forward, and instead of six on it only 4 columns are put, and two are at the edges replaced with a sculpture that gave to the central portico special charm.
Decorative finishing of all walls of the central house high pilasters in a combination to harmonous columns of a portico of the same Corinthian warrant at precisely found proportions strengthens impression not only symmetry, but also grace of a construction even in the absence of the finishing, classical, triangular pediment.
of Decorative details in registration of the palace a set, and all of them are magnificent: a thin molding of garlands, remarkable plasticity of lion`s masks in locks of arches, decorative vases on all attic. All of them supplement already fine registration of the house, turning it into the magnificent palace to which in 30 - x years of the 20th century the Soviet architect V. Dolganov attached the semicircular terrace which was well entered in the classical scheme from the hill.Should note
that wing have also 4 - columned porticoes, but the Ionic warrant. Unlike P - figurative compositions of the Russian estates they are put to one line with the main building that all composition in general was parallel to a wall of the Kremlin. Besides, the architect considered a building yarusnost which would have something in common with a many-tier tower of Borovitsky gate.P. Pashkov`s Estate has
already more than 200 - summer history, and Pashkov the house and takes hitherto the worthy place among the most beautiful constructions of Moscow.
Architectural graphics of the author.