The certificate at home of
Over the last ten years the number of pupils - ex-sloes in Moscow increased more than by 20 times. However experts assume that soon interest in the external studies will decrease a little. The reason - universal introduction of USE. > >
Not only for lagging behind
In Soviet period only units - generally disabled people and children with the weakened health or deviations in behavior were engaged in i in p at home. The right for “particular treatment“ needed to be proved: at own will without valid excuse did not transfer to such form of education.2000 the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation approved by
B “The provision on receiving the general education in the form of the external studies“. This document regulated activity of the external studies. The greatest interest was caused by its general availability. Pupils of all steps, from first graders to “without five minutes“ graduates can choose home form of education. There are no age limits. If the adult who in due time did not leave secondary school decided to receive the certificate, too will not refuse to it. It is not obligatory to explain the reasons of transition to the external studies: by whatever reasons the school student and his parents were guided, the administration of school has no right to refuse to them.Under such circumstances not only “poor students“ and “greenhorns“, but also talented pupils became interested in
in training at home. It becomes more difficult to enter to the prestigious university every year, preparation takes away many forces. Purposeful seniors do not want to spend time for daily visit of school. The external studies allow to plan freely the day depending on lesson schedule on courses or with tutors. Here also the number of persons interested to study at home increases.
But victorious procession of the external studies along the country had a rival - the unified state examination. Ideologists of USE and teachers are unanimous in opinion: to be prepared independently for the centralized testing it is unreal. Successfully to pass test, insufficiently strong knowledge of the school program. Preparation for USE demands special methodology. Not incidentally within the first years of action of experiment teachers were concerned by low results of graduates: children and teachers just were not able to pass test correctly.
At present USE did not gain mass distribution yet. Part of higher education institutions, including prestigious, accept the evidence of uniform state testing not on all specialties or do not accept in general. But the position of the Ministry of Education is unshakable: soon it will become the main way of receipt in institutes.
In this regard the number of persons interested to study in the external studies most likely will decrease. Training at home with the subsequent certification in a general education institution will become only one of forms of receiving secondary education again - convenient for unusual situations.
Of course, the arisen obstacle it is possible to overcome if to enter into programs of the external studies a special course of training to USE. But it demands additional expenses, both material, and labor. It is necessary to develop a technique, to employ new teachers or to train already working... So far the problem is at a discussion stage.
For every taste
two opportunities to get an education external Exist. Everything depends on time which you have.
If have no place to hurry, it is possible to pass to home form of education at the school. For this purpose it is enough to write the application addressed to the director. For minors it is signed by parents or persons replacing them. In elementary and middle classes mothers and fathers of the exceptional children who much are ahead of peers in development usually resort to this measure. At usual lessons to them it is uninteresting, and the external studies allow to expand the training program. This option and for the problem children who did not find a common language with peers or teachers is used.
the School student - the ex-sloe has the same rights, as his “internal“ schoolmates. Consultations with teachers (within two hours before each examination), free use of school of library, if necessary - visit of laboratory and practical works are guaranteed to it. At desire he can participate in the school Olympic Games and competitions. To receive the certificate on secondary education, it is necessary to pass the state certification. Number of intermediate quality checks of knowledge of ex-sloes and internal occupations (control, tests, dictations, etc.) defines educational institution. Any public high school is obliged to provide such option of training, and it is free. The exception is made by only additional services.the Correspondence study takes place
in the usual temporary mode. It is impossible to finish two classes in one year - for this purpose there are specialized external studies with the accelerated (intensive) training. Most often seniors use such program at once to pass the tenth and eleventh classes. Especially it is popular with young men:“ the year saved“ before army provides additional attempt of entering a higher education institution.
to conduct training in the intensive program, school needs to have the license for rendering additional educational services. Group classes are given three - five times a week. The system of lectures and seminars with obligatory homeworks and testings by results of development of each subject is most widespread.
One of distinctive features - modular training. For example, the first two weeks give lectures only on mathematics, then - on stories, then - on physics etc. Subjects are given schematically: the most part of material assumes independent deep study.
Pay attention! Intensiv does not happen free! It is necessary to pay for an opportunity to reduce school days. The average cost of one school hours in group - 100 r: individually - from 150. For a year of occupations the sum equivalent to 500 - 1000 dollars turns out.
to be or not to be
Whatever reasons led you to thought to pass to the external studies, the decision cannot be made hurriedly.
Training suits not all at home. In certain cases removal from school only aggravates problems, but does not solve them. High level of self-discipline is necessary for the external studies. Nobody is necessary over soul, to adjust and direct the pupil there is nobody: started a difficult subject - you have only yourselves to blame. Such responsibility in power to not all teenagers.to
is Not always helped by the external studies and to those who left school from - for problems in communication. To run from a battlefield - not the best exit. If the child did not get on together with schoolmates, parents can transfer him to home training... But what will be when comes it is time to go to the university? Whether the young man will be able internally to study or will get used to live in the closed space of own house? In such situations it is better to consult with the skilled psychologist.Many disputes cause
intensiv. One business if this form of education is chosen by the adult who for any reason still did not get senior secondary education. Another - the school student of elementary grades. Whether it is necessary to hurry to mature? Experts still did not come to a consensus. Intellectually to ten - the twelve-year-old person can be rather developed to graduate from school, but psychologically he is usually not ready to adulthood.a tar Spoon
the Main problems of the external studies are connected by
with insufficient methodical study of a question and material problems. to
It is clear that training demands a bit different textbooks and grants at home, than traditional. Accurate structurization of educational literature on subjects, workbooks to each textbook is necessary. >
it is considerable to p to facilitate life of ex-sloes and their teachers new technologies can. For example, the anthology of literature on CD will relieve of need to look for works of the school program. Electronic diaries will simplify progress control. Interactive consultations will allow to receive the help of teachers, without coming out the house, and search of training materials on the school server will replace a visit of library. Adjusting lectures, obligatory for the intensive external studies, can be filmed. If you for any reason skipped class, - see it in record.
Unfortunately, technical innovations it is too expensive for the majority of general education institutions. In slightly best situation the external studies - intensiva. They have independent means: tuition fee. To usual high schools not to problems of ex-sloes: the budgetary financing hardly is enough for the most necessary.Many difficulties are connected by
also with certification of graduates - ex-sloes. Those who chose an intensive course take the majority of final examinations for the 11th class in the winter, during specially organized session. And here the composition and examination in mathematics all pupils, regardless of form of education, write at the same time. It turns out that from the moment of physical leaving school before legal obtaining the certificate there passes half a year - it is convenient not to all. Also the issue of receiving medals is not up to the end handled. Whether alleged medallists have to take examinations in all disciplines of a course, or enough main objects? The general for all norms are not accepted. The problem is solved at the level of each concrete school.
Under the law the school student has the right for partial training in the form of the external studies. For example, if you are going to arrive on filfak, then part of objects of high school (mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, etc.) are not necessary to you. Whether it is lawful to study these disciplines external, and to a class to come only to the “necessary“ objects? Formally - yes. But actually administrations of schools take such measures reluctantly: it is not convenient to work with “semi-correspondence student“. Usually suggest to pass to the full external studies.
the Notebook of the parent
answers questions of parents with the head a press - services of Department of Education of Moscow A. V. Gavrilov
- whether there are standards for the number of examinations and for homework volume?
- According to the order of Department of Education of Moscow, in the senior classes it is impossible to carry out more than two examinations a week. It is important that they did not drop out for the first and last day. The volume of homework should not exceed half passed at a lesson.
the Recommended number of examinations:
|of Types of works||5 - y C.||6 - y C.||7 - y C.||8 - y C.||9 - y C.|
|of Types of works||< strong> 10 - y C. - 1 h / 2 h / 3 h / 4 h in week||10 - y C. - 1 h / 2 h / 3 h / 4 h||3/6/9/12||2/4/6/8|
of the Composition on literature in 10 - 11 - x classes are usually spent by
|5 - 6 class||7 - 11 class|
|of the Mathematician||13 - 15||-|
|Algebra||-||8 - 10|
|Geometry||-||no more than 5|
the Minimum quantity practical and examinations on physics:
|of 7 C.||of 8 C.||of 9 C.||of 10 C.||of 11 C|
|the Stake - in hours a week||2||2||2 - 3||3||3|
|the Stake - in practical works||8 - 10||8 - 10||5 - 8||6 - 9||5 - 8|
|the Stake - in examinations or offsets||4 - 6||4 - 6||4 - 5||5 - 6||4 - 5|
Performance of homework
|1 class (from the second half of the year)||Till 1 o`clock in day|
|the 2nd class||Till 1,5 o`clock in day|
|3 - 4 class||Till 2 o`clock in day|
|5 - 6 class||To 2. The 5th hour a day|
|7 - 8 class||Till 3 o`clock in day|
|9 - 11 class||Till 4 o`clock in day|