to Whom such situation is not familiar: future mother makes the test or there takes place inspection and receives a piece of paper with strange figures and letters. What do they mean and as doctors “straight off“ manage to be guided with these hieroglyphs? Will try at least at the elementary level to master sophisticated medical language.
it will be a question of your favourite HGCh Today. Be not surprised, you are already well familiar with it and really love it. HGCh forced to be shown on the test that long-awaited second strip. What is meant by these three magic small letters?
the Abbreviation of “HGCh“ designate a horionichesky gonadotrophin of the person . It begins to be allocated with germ fabrics (more precisely - horiony) right after its attachment to a uterus wall, and this remarkable event, we will remind, occurs for the fourth days after fertilization.
All first trimester of pregnancy of HGCh controls development in ovaries of the hormones necessary for normal development of pregnancy: progesterone, estradiol and estriol. The largest level of a horionichesky gonadotrophin is noted on 8 - 9 - y to week. Then, by the end of the first trimester when hormones begin to be produced by a placenta, the HGCh level decreases and keeps at this level during the second trimester.
For early diagnostics of pregnancy uses the fact that on 7 - 10 - y day from the moment of fertilization occurs substantial increase of concentration of HGCh in mother`s blood. This hormone is defined in urine of the pregnant woman in not changed look, that is why we lower a strip of the test for pregnancy in urine. It is necessary to notice that it is optimum to carry out the test not earlier than two weeks from the moment of fertilization or at a delay of the expected periods for three days and more. At the same time it is desirable to use the first morning urine (just because in morning urine there will be the most high content of HGCh). At a delay monthly for a week and more it is already optional to wait for morning.
If do not have
special recommendations, for identification of pregnancy on early terms a blood test can be taken beginning of a week of a delay of the next periods. For detection of pathology of a fruit at pregnant women a blood test needs to be taken with 16 - y on 20 - yu week of pregnancy together with other markers (AFP, free estriol).
the HGCh Normal level in blood serum at not pregnant 0 - 15 honey/ml. Its level at pregnant women can be determined according to the following table:
of Term of pregnancy (week)
Median (average value)
1 - 2
50 - 300
3 - 4
1500 - 5000
4 - 5
10000 - 30000
5 - 6
20000 - 100000
6 - 7
50000 - 200000
7 - 8
20000 - 200000
8 - 9
20000 - 100000
9 - 10
20000 - 95000
10 - 11
20000 - 95000
11 - 12
20000 - 90000
13 - 14
15000 - 60000
15 - 25
10000 - 35000
26 - 37
10000 - 60000
the HGCh level Relation to a median is called Megohm; its size at normal pregnancy 0,5 - 2.
Keep in mind
that norms can differ depending on laboratory (pay attention in what units measurement as in different laboratories sometimes use various units is performed - as a rule, nearby specify norm indicators in these cases). It is also necessary to know that if you wait not for one kid, the quantity of HGCh in blood increases in proportion to number of fruits.
the HGCh Level is lowered by
at extra-uterine pregnancy and at interruption threat; in this case it is possible to specify the diagnosis, investigating the HGCh level in dynamics. If uterine pregnancy develops normally, then the level of a horionichesky gonadotrophin will double for each 1,5 days during the period with 2 - yu on 5 - yu week from the moment of fertilization. At extra-uterine pregnancy or an abortion the HGCh level increases much more slowly, is invariable or decreases.
At puzyrny drift, a horionepitelioma (tumoral diseases of a placenta) the HGCh level considerably exceeds norm for this term. Also increase of a horionichesky gonadotrophin can be noted at a breast cancer, lungs, tumors of ovaries.
In urine the HGCh level is always 1,5 - 2 times lower, than in blood serum.
Determination of the HGCh level is included into so-called the threefold test - research which is conducted by everything pregnant and allows to suspect existence of some anomalies of development of a fruit. Please, remember: by means of this research it is impossible to make the diagnosis precisely. It only allows to reveal the pregnant women making risk group who need to make serious additional inspection. Therefore at positive result of the threefold test do not despair and do not draw hasty conclusions; address experts for detailed inspection!
the Maintenance of an estriol (E3) in blood of pregnant women:
of Week of pregnancy
Concentration of an estriol (nmol/l)
1,05 - 3,5
1,05 - 3,85
1,4 - 5,6
3,5 - 15,4
4,9 - 22,75
5,25 - 23,1
5,6 - 29,75
6,65 - 38,5
7,35 - 45,5
the Maintenance of an alfafetoprotein (AFP) in blood of pregnant women:
of Week of pregnancy
Average value (median) of ME/ml
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Approximate results of the threefold test in several situations:
Defects of a nervous tube
Syndrome of an arrest of development of a fruit, pregnancy interruption threat, the pre-natal death
Is not present data (did not define)
there is no
data (did not define)
Krom of HGCh, within this research define AFP and EZ. APF is alfafetoprotein , the protein which is produced in a liver of the child and contained in mother`s blood. Determination of its level is used for an exception of development in a fruit of defects of a nervous tube, various sites of a digestive tract, uric system, and also Shershevsky`s syndrome - Turner (genetically caused disease of the kid), a serious arrest of development of a fruit, some diseases of a placenta and, at last, a Down syndrome. of EZ is a hormone estriol , keeping pregnancy.
the Positive test result allows to assume existence of anomalies of a fruit; it is necessary to repeat the test, to make ultrasonography, more in-depth studies, for example, for blood sampling of a fruit of an umbilical cord or an intake of amniotic waters. Negative means that there are no deviations.
the Main lack of research is it, to put it mildly, inaccuracy. Now experts speak about of 80% of false positive results (according to the official version of 5%). For example, the false positive result is quite possible at incorrectly certain term of pregnancy, deviations at age and mother`s weight, presence at mother of diabetes.
only the doctor can Estimate test results: only he can see all nuances of the test. So, in order that the doctor suspected genetic pathology at a fruit, it is necessary that indicators of the threefold test were several times higher or lower than norm, but minor changes of indicators, as a rule, are a reason for repeated delivery of the analysis. However now identifications of risk groups this test is widely used. So do the threefold test, with relief sigh at negative result and be not upset at once at positive.