Walks across the Tverskaya of
In each city are the main street. At us is the Tverskaya which arose as the ancient road to Tver.
So why all - main? The matter is that after transfer of the capital to St. Petersburg the Tver path connected two capitals new and old, First-throned. This way there went to Moscow on crowning the Russian emperors.not having equal
we Will begin with
walk on the left side from Manezhnaya Square.
the unique monument of national history and culture - the National hotel constructed at the beginning of the last century on the project of the famous architect A. V. Ivanov and which still does not have equal among capital hotels Discovers the Tverskaya. It often give as an example of architectural style the Moscow modernist style or, more precisely, - eclecticism with modernist style elements.the Decision on construction of National hotel was made by
in 1900. Already in the following - started construction with application of modern technologies and materials. Ceiling overlappings represented reinforced concrete designs. Finishing began spring of 1902.
As envisioned by the architect, for the main facades were used by the most different decorative elements - a natural stone, smooth plaster, a ceramic tile, a stucco molding. At that time it was the only hotel equipped with elevators.the Building surrounds with
a balcony with an openwork lattice, and on an angular luchkovy attic (a ledge in the form of onions on a roof) - a decorative mayolikovy panel. A former plot during an era of a cult of industrial work (1918) it was replaced industrial (if to get accustomed, it is possible to find the smoking pipes of plants).to hotel, Newly opened in 1995, appropriated to
the highest category - five stars. The same year the hotel building is carried by the Decree of the Russian President to historical and cultural monuments of the city of Moscow of federal importance.
At different times in “National“ N. Rimsky-Korsakov, A. Pavlova, F. Shalyapin, A. Frans, A. Barbyus, G. Wells, U. Churchill stopped.
of the Star welcome theater
Near hotel complex under construction instead of a former “glass stump“ and by massive Central telegraph the cozy mansion of theater of M. Yermolova settled down.
the Modest plate on a facade reports that it is a monument history. The theater of M. Yermolova is located in the ancient building at the heart of which front part - one of the most considerable mansions on Tverskaya Street constructed in 1830 - x years. With some changes the two-storeyed house with an attic in the center existed till 1897, then the merchant Postnikov reconstructed it.does not have
Without the past the present. Life of modern theater of Yermolova arose in the past and is still inseparably linked with it. Here from 1931 to 1938 took place we STAY (theater of V. E. Meyerhold). In this building the well-known statement of “The lady with camellias“ was born. Young Igor Ilyinsky, Eraste Garin, Zinaida Raich, Maria Babanova played on this stage...
Theatre outstanding directors, since 1937 - N. P. Hmelev, the creator of the psychological, improvisational play at different times directed. From 1946 to 1956 the theater was headed by A. M. Lobanov (on the right at an entrance to theater its memorial board hangs). This director was able to see unusual in ordinary, gave to the actor huge freedom in work on a role. All Moscow spoke about its performances. Subsequently some time V. Fokin directed theater. And now the theater shines with such names as Vladimir Andreyev (the chief director of theater), Elina Bystritskaya, Tatyana Shmyga, Sergey Bezrukov.
Sparkled illumination...we will be transferred by
A to the Soviet Moscow now. Directly at the corner of the Tverskaya with Gazetny Lane in the evenings brightly lights adjacent sidewalks with the wide windows the Moscow Central telegraph. The strict building with a naugolny tower is opened by two facades both on the street, and to the lane. Over an entrance - the huge rotating globe and an electronic board by which passersby recognize time, temperature and atmospheric pressure.
In 1856 there was a telegraph in the Kremlin which served an imperial family. And on September 23, 1859 in Gazetny Lane the Central city cable station intended for service of individuals was open. In ten years the station moved to Myasnitskaya - to the house near Post office. Here the telegraph was located within 60 years. By 1925, besides internal communication, 37 international radiotelegraphic lines worked already.
But needs for cable communication all grew, there was not enough place in the house on Myasnitskaya, and the decision to build the new building was made. Wanted to build it on Lubyanka, at Zubovskaya Square, but, eventually, stopped on that place in the Tverskaya near which the telegraph was within 10 years.by
announced a competition on the best project. I. I. Rerberg directing construction of Myur and Meriliz department store (nowadays Central Department Store), clinics of Morozov on Pirogovskaya Street, the author of projects of the Kiev station and the Constitutional court became the winner. The famous architect was a person modest and often signed the works simply:“ engineer Rerberg“.
how the architect coped with the task, is said by the building - monumental, but quiet and clear proportions - a fine example of architecture of constructivism 20 - x years. The extensive glazed surfaces of facades are characteristic of this style. The matter is that when this house was created, in construction even more often applied a framework as the bearing building basis. Walls, being exempted from freight of overlappings, became lungs and could assume the extensive glazed surfaces. There were such houses and before revolution (already mentioned “Myur and Meriliz“), but is rare. And here in modern architecture so-called “tekhnostil“ actively uses a possibility of a continuous glazing of frame buildings. Let`s glance to Gazetny Lane and we will see there shining as a crystal, the building torgovo - office complex of Makdonalds firm.with
B by the Central telegraph equipped premilitary years one of the radio studios, best in Europe. Transfers went in direct on air. In the Radio theater the famous actors Boris Livanov, Mikhail Yanshin, Vasily Kachalov acted. Acted here and Yury Levitan, from here he read the well-known address to the Soviet people about the beginning of war. Levitan then lived in literal sense by the Central telegraph.
On holidays the building of the Central telegraph was decorated by the well-known illumination (author V. Novichkov) buried in oblivion in the last decade. Of course, many of us remember it. Necessarily you will think that the present before our eyes turns into history.
For the first walk, I think, enough, but we will walk on the main street of Moscow still more than once.