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the Meeting of New year to which there was not enough time is inconceivable without glass of sparkling wine. And it is not obligatory from the Province of Champagne. In the world there are many worthy drinks with which and to the house it would not be a shame to Perinyon.

of Tradition and the present

For production of the best sparkling wines of the world uses by “sparkling“ , or traditional, a way. Professionals call it “method of bottle fermentation“. It is the most expensive and labor-intensive process, but only it is so possible to receive high-class wines.

a method Essence in the following. Do dry wines with the small content of alcohol of grapes of mainly white grades, but rather high acidity. With rare exception, they do not pass endurance in oak barrels. Depending on what result the wine maker wants to receive, wines mix up in a certain proportion. However, sometimes, that wine is made from one grade of grapes.

the Received mix is placed in a special thick-walled large bottle. Here add the “production liqueur“ consisting of sugar or sweet grape syrup, old wines and yeast. After that the large bottle is corked and put in horizontal position in a cellar.

Thanks to production liqueur in a large bottle new process of fermentation begins

, at the same time carbon dioxide is emitted. Without having an exit, he creates pressure in a large bottle and sates with himself wine. After the end of fermentation yeast drops out on a large bottle wall in the form of a powdery deposit. In such type of wine can be stored in a cellar from several months to several years. During “endurance on draft“ wine is enriched with so valued experts shades of bread, pastries, nuts. Sometimes the endurance of prestigious brands of champagne, the Spanish Cava, and also some Italian sparkling can proceed till 5 - 10 years.

When wine finally ripens, it is necessary to remove a deposit from a bottle, having left in it the wine saturated with carbon dioxide, - such procedure is called “remyuazh“ .

In old times of a bottle took place on a special lectern in horizontal position then manually were slightly stirred up, turned by 45 degrees and gradually fell a neck down, forcing a deposit to move closer to a neck. Every day the worker of a cellar passed along lecterns, turned bottles and did special marks in a bottom. Eventually the bottle fell into vertical position a neck down, and the deposit gathered on a stopper. There came the turn of “degorzhazh“ - removals of a deposit with a stopper. The expert was faced by a hard task: it was required to open quickly a bottle, to let out a deposit with a minimum of wine and to turn a bottle a neck up. Masters who could do it were appreciated worth its weight in gold. Subsequently process of a degorzhazh was improved: the neck of a bottle began to be frozen, and at its opening the wine which is under pressure itself pushed out an ice stopper with a deposit, allowing to minimize losses of wine.

After a degorzhazh make “dozazh“ - in a large bottle add (to former level) mix of sugar and wine, a proportion depends on what on sweet has to be wine (brut, dry etc.) . Then wine is corked and for some time put in cellars. It is counted that during production of sparkling wine by a classical sparkling method each bottle passes through human hands about 40 times.

However, today the manual way of production is used seldom - and only for the most expensive and prestigious wines. In the majority of wineries this process is mechanized.

of the Bottle is passed “remyuazh“, being loaded into big containers in which stir up and turn at the same time hundreds of bottles. All further process, up to gluing of labels, happens on the special automated lines.

the Majority of inexpensive sparkling wines is made by

in a different way - “reservoir“, or “sharmat“ . Its difference from traditional that secondary fermentation happens under pressure in special tanks - akratofor - and much quicker. In 30 - e years the Soviet scientists improved a method, having made a cycle of production of wine continuous.

the Reservoir way gives to

the chance to do sparkling in large quantities and at smaller expenses. But, unfortunately, and wine turns out more poor quality, concedes classical in depth and a subtlety of a bouquet.

of of J. Lassale Brut Preference
of AOC Champagne, France

France: Champagne and the company

Sparkling (Champagne) - one of the best-known, prestigious and expensive wines of France. The first wine house of Ruinart existing and until now, was founded in 1729. But champagne gained special popularity in Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

Champagne is made by

on the most northern vineyards in France located around the cities of Reims and Eperne. The cool climate and cretaceous soils allow to do wines with good acidity. In Champagne three main grades of grapes - white Chardonnay and red a pin noir and Meunier`s pin are cultivated. For production of the majority of white sparkling wines all three grades are used. At the same time wines from red grades vinifitsirutsya “on white“ (that is without insisting on alburnum) why too turn out white.

are subdivided by

Depending on the content of sugar of wine into several categories. (ultra brut, brut nature, brut zero) sugar is not added to ultrabrut at all, and its admissible contents can reach only 0,3 percent. These wines are quite rare and enjoy special love of experts. In ekstrabrt (extra brut) the amount of sugar can reach 0,6 percent. The majority of the well-known brands of sparkling wines belongs to this type. The most widespread is category champagne brut (brut) - to 1,5 percent of sugar. Further on increase of content of sugar the categories sec (dry, 1,7 - 3,5%), demi - sec (moist, 3,3 - 5%) and doux follow (sweet, a sysha of 5%).

the Most part of champagne is made by

from wines of several harvests. For Champagne it is need. As quality of wines of different years differs, but at the same time for each brand it is necessary to reproduce wines with more from year to year - less similar aroma and taste, wine makers should add some wine of previous years - so-called reserve, or millezimny (from fr. Millesime - year of a harvest), wines which do only in the most successful years.

Long time champagne was considered as wine for receptions and for aperitif. Really, in this quality it is ideal. However different grades of champagne approach also easy fish dishes, cheese, salads and, of course, black caviar! Difficult millezimny grades of white champagne demand serious couple at all - like veal, bird dishes with gentle creamy sauce, a salmon or game dishes. At last, demi - sec is perfectly combined with not too sweet desserts, with fruit.

of of J. Lassale Brut Rose Reserve des Grandes Annee,
of AOC Champagne, France

the Success of sparkling wines generated imitation of wine makers across all France, and today in its many corners also make excellent sparkling wines by a classical method (them Cremant often call). In Loire Valley from a grade shenen blan, sometimes with an additive of Chardonnay, graceful and difficult sparkling wines with aromas of a peach, lime color, the candied fruit and minerals - such as Vouvray, Saumur and Cremant - de - Loire are made. Cremant - D`Alsace and Cremant - de - Bourgogne, from Alsace and Burgundy respectively, and Blanquette - de - Limoux from Languedoc are also good.

Of course, champagne is obliged by the reputation and high prices not only to a sonorous name, but also steadily high quality. Therefore if you decided to get a small bottle of this legendary wine, can safely take as samples of the conventional brands (Veuve Clicquot, Moet & Chandon, Laurent - Perrier, Louis Roederer, Taittinger), and wine of less known small farms. The last sometimes are even more interesting.

by

Well, and it is the best of all to buy champagne in wine boutique as this wine is very sensitive to storage conditions. Pay attention to a label: the inscription methode traditionelle means application of a classical method, vin mousseaux - reservoir.

of of J. Lassalle Blanc de Blanc Millesime 1999,
of AOC Champagne, France

of Cava - the Catalan sun in a glass

In the second half of the 19th century “a sparkling method“ was mastered by Catalans. Today Cava - the only sparkling wines capable to be compared in popularity and prevalence with champagne. Jose Raventos belonging to an old wine-making family Kodornya became the wine maker whose of hands there was the first bottle of Cava. Today the Codorniu brand on an equal basis with the best-seller Freixenet is the most known sparkling wine of Spain.

All wines having the designation Cava on a label pass secondary fermentation in a bottle and endurance on draft. The minimum term of endurance makes nine months, and for the prestigious category gran reserva - three years. Many wineries use also big terms of endurance. As well as champagne, Cava wines are divided into categories on the content of sugar: brut natyur, brut, dry (extra seco), moist (semi seco) and sweet (dulce). Brut and brut natyur are most popular.

to Cava Wines an increasing number of people around the world gives to

preference. The reason - high quality and the moderate price; on average the cost of Cava is 3 - 4 times cheaper than some champagne. At the same time rules of production of these wines are very strict. Territories of vineyards in which Cava can be made, are defined by the law.

As for climatic conditions, producers of Cava are in very advantageous position. The climate in Catalonia is warmer and softer, than in Champagne, and rods yield nearly an every year the good harvest allowing to make high-quality sparkling wines. Many of them become millezimny.

At Cava very wide range. Young wines differ in the soft balanced taste that does them by excellent aperitif and maintenance of salads with seafood. More old wines with a saturated bouquet and full taste with shades of the sea and minerals perfectly approach seafood dishes and fishes with whom the Catalan cuisine is rich. Gran reserva, and also the wines made with use of a grade of Chardonnay are ideally suited for thorough light meat and bird dishes. Refined pink Cava noir will make excellent couple of a game of a pin, and moist - to desserts.

to

In a word, if you are not ready to pay two - three thousand rubles for a bottle of champagne, Cava - excellent option. Among the best brands of this wine which are on sale in Russia besides mentioned above, it is possible to allocate Gramona, Vallformosa, Segura Viudas, Juve Y Camps, Marques de Monistrol.

of of Simonsig Kaapse Vonkel 2004
Methode Cap Classique, Republic of South Africa

Italy: fragrant Asti, the Alpine classics and the sea Prosecco

can find

quite good sparkling wines In Italy too. The main part of production is located in northern part of the country. The most known sparkling wine is Asti spumante sweet which taste is pleasant to many Russians. At Asti spumante bright aroma of ripe grape berries, a sweet melon, flowers and honey which it is also appreciated.

of Wine from grapes moskato of which do Asti spumante badly transfer endurance therefore for its production the special technology - without secondary fermentation and addition of sugar is used. As a result easy and very fragrant wine with the small content of alcohol (6 - 7 percent) and high content of sugar (about 10 percent) turns out.

the Main part of production of sparkling wines by a classical method is concentrated by

in the foothills of the Alps - in the Areas of Lombardy and Trentino. Here use classical grades of Chardonnay, a pin blan, a pin noir and Meunier`s pin. Mountain vineyards, cool climate and care of local wine makers allow to do the high quality wines close on quality and style to champagnes. Brut and moist wines have the greatest distribution. The minimum term of endurance on draft makes ten months, for riserva wines - 36 months. The most famous producers of such wines - Bellavista, Ca`Del Bosco, Ferrari.

the sparkling wine, Most widespread in Italy, carries the name “Prosekko“ - from the name of a grade of the same name of grapes. The center of production is located on North - the East of Italy, in Veneto`s region. Prosekko is remarkable the aroma which, however, is lost in the course of endurance. Therefore the fast reservoir way allowing to receive a lot of pleasant, but nevertheless very simple and unpretentious wine is suitable for preservation of these properties more.

of of Monti Firchi 2003
DOCG Asti, Italy

Other Europe and the New World

the Invention of the house of Perinyon, of course, drew with

of of Tarapaca Chardonnay Grande Reserve Brut 2003
DO Valle de Casablanca, Chile attention of wine makers not only the leading European countries. Today sparkling wines do practically everywhere where in principle wines are made. The most interesting samples meet in Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia where they carry the name zekt (sekt), and also in Romania and in Greece.

also the republics of the former USSR did not stand aside. Productions of sparkling wines exist in the classical way in Krasnodar Krai (Abrau - Dyurso, Romanov), in Ukraine (the New World, Artemovskoye), in Moldova (Krikova, Lyon - Gri) and in Georgia (Bagrationi). Unfortunately, common problems in winemaking of these countries and the worn-out equipment often do not allow to make rather quality sparkling wines.

As for the countries of the New World, the greatest success in this field was achieved by the USA and the Republic of South Africa. In the most important wine-making region of the USA - California - was many territories, suitable for winemaking. Thanks to it many wine houses from Europe, including such famous producers as Moet & Chandon and Codorniu located here.

the Sparkling method of production of sparkling wines is mastered by

and in Is southern - the African Republic (here it is called Methode Cap Classique). Wines of such brands as Pongracz, Simonsig and Graham Beck, deservedly are considered the best in the countries of the New World. Interesting wines occur also at the Chilean wine makers, but outputs are still insignificant.