Hi, a zimushka - winter! Walks of the young naturalist
With approach of winter everything changed to unrecognizability. The green wood took cover a white tuba, the river hid under ice, butterflies got to somewhere and further some birds moved to warm regions long ago. For the adult all these changes are obvious and clear. And for the kid? What is known by him about nature life in the winter?
of Supervision over the nature together with the kid many of us consider
About advantage of supervision as occupation frivolous, boring and not especially important. Far more important, we think, to teach to read and consider the baby as soon as possible, to solve logical problems and to formulate own conclusions. All this, certainly, deserves attention. But various supervision just also teach the baby to think, analyze, compare, systematize the phenomena, to find communication between cause and effect. Besides supervision over wildlife bring up esthetically and is moral, do the child attentive and sensitive, and it for the kid is much more important to read abilities in three years.
It is no secret that city kids communicate with the nature a little. And the nature per se in big cities remained a little. But how many we told the baby about seasons and the related natural phenomena, showing pictures in books and playing board games, it is all the same not enough. It is better to see once, as we know, than to hear hundred times. And as it would be exciting to go during week-end to the wood or to city park that the baby could see the inquisitive eyes all those magic transformations which were presented to the nature by a zimushka - winter. In any case park! Even in the yard near the house it is possible to arrange remarkable excursion. Only try that communication with the kid did not turn into lecture. Ask it questions, be interested in his opinion, you seek to develop his inquisitiveness - let him reflect in search of answers, and it does not matter if his guesses are not always right. The main thing - desire to find truth. So, we put on more warmly, we take with ourselves the camera and we go to meet winter!
of the Sign of winter
First of all, it is worth talking to the kid about signs of winter. Let he will tell you about it. Even the three-year-old peanut already has a decent life experience. For certain he will tell that there is snow in the winter. Truly, and why? Because in the winter cold. Snow is the frozen water. In the summer from a cloudlet it is raining, and in the winter rain droplets freeze and become snowflakes. Let the kid will take in hands a little snow and itself will be convinced that it thaws and turns into water. Gather snow in a children`s bucket and bring it home, observe how it thaws, and then freeze in the freezer again. Walking on the street during snowfall, consider with the kid of a bittock - snowflakes. All of them different and surprisingly beautiful. But all snowflakes have one general property. What? At all snowflakes identical quantity of beams (six). At home make snowflakes of paper. Children this occupation bewitches. Just takes the breath away when you develop paper and you guess: and what will turn out there?
If the kid already has some idea of planets and their rotation around the sun, talk to it about why it becomes cold in the winter. It is the simplest to make it by means of the globe and a desk lamp. Pay attention of the young astronomer that the terrestrial axis is a little inclined and therefore the sun heats Earth unevenly. When on one half of Earth summer, on another - winter. But here Earth flew by a half-circle around the sun, and winter with a summer are interchanged the position. It is possible to cut out from paper of a figure of children in winter and summer clothes, to rotate the globe around the sun - lamps and to think what season will be in different places of “earth“. >
it will be pertinent to p to talk to the kid about winter clothes, about for what people put on it. Remember winter sports and argue why it is impossible to ride the sledge or skis in the summer. Talk about snow-removing equipment and its help to people.Tell
to the baby that in the winter days become shorter, and nights - are longer. For example, pay its attention that in an early autumn when you came back from a garden, the sun still shone. You managed to take a walk, play, have supper, and on the street still was light-. And now you come back home in twilight. If the kid does not go to a garden, think up another, a temporary milestone clear to it. It can be evening walk or that time when the father comes from work. The main thing that the event repeated day by day approximately at the same time. Then reduction of light day will be evident.
On a visit to trees
the Most noticeable changes happen in wildlife, especially in flora. Watching trees and comparing how they look in the spring, in the summer, in the fall and in the winter, the kid will be able to realize change of seasons better. It is good to choose some one tree, growing near the house, and from time to time to come to it to observe his life. The small birch best of all is suitable for these purposes. Kids best of all distinguish a birch from other trees. Remember together with the child that in the summer the tree was dressed in a green dress, in the fall leaves began to turn yellow and fly, and by winter the tree remained absolutely without leaflets, naked. Think together with the kid why so occurs. Tell it that from the chilled earth roots cannot pull water and the cold winter sun to a tree any more insufficiently therefore it dumps leaves and as if fills up. And if leaves were not showered, branches could break under weight of snow, and snow easily slides off thin naked branches, without doing to a harm tree.Consider
together with the kid of a kidney on branches of different trees. Now they absolutely small, are covered from above with a thick protective thin skin, and no frosts to them are terrible. Pull down a kidney and show to the kid.If in a kidney the tiny green germ is visible to
, so a tree live and when it warms the spring sun, from kidneys new leaflets will appear. It is possible to collect the branches which fell from different trees, to put houses in water and to arrange small spring among winter. However, such “sleeping“ branches will stay long enough before from kidneys leaves arise. To accelerate process, arrange to plants “bathtub“ - put them in warm water (30 - 35 °C) and leave for 6 - 12 hours. Then put in a vase with water. In several days of a branch will begin to develop and will present you with the kid a real miracle.
Pay attention of the kid to fir-trees and pines. Ask whether they changed with arrival of winter? No, they did not dump the hvoinka as deciduous trees. And will winter in a green dress. Explain that hvoinka are the same leaves. But small needles, unlike big leaves, and a sunlight need less, and waters. Here fir-trees also do not dump needles. In the winter coniferous trees sleep too, but fill up after deciduous and wake up earlier.
Probably, your kid is able to distinguish some trees. But it is easier to do it in the summer - leaves help. And here in the winter when they flew to learn this or that tree or a bush absolutely not easy.
It will be an interesting research task for the baby. Pay attention of the child to appearance of a tree, to its bark, have a look, maybe, remained where - nibud on branches the dried-up leaflets. The birch can be distinguished on bark, a willow at once - on the branches which are hanging down to the earth, some species of a poplar - on high pyramidal krone. On a mountain ash and a dogrose there are since fall dried fruits. It is very easy to recognize these plants by them in the winter.Look at
whether there is a lot of on a mountain ash of berries, and check a national sign. They say that a big harvest of a mountain ash - to cold, severe winter. It and is clear, for many birds a mountain ash - the real rescue. Thrushes, sviristel, bullfinches like to regale on it. If to you carries, then you will be able to see how packs of these northern guests literally “sweep away“ mountain ash clusters in a few minutes. > that it is even better for p to remember
A, where what tree, and at the same time and to get warm, play cheerful game. Mother speaks: “Time, two, three, to a birch run!“ And the kid quickly executes command. It is so possible to run both to an oak, and to a chestnut, and to any other tree growing nearby. And then it will be exciting to change over when playing the games becomes the baby...
prepare For winter not only people and trees. Animals and birds wait for cold weather too and stock on winter. Let the kid will think which of forest inhabitants reserves for himself food in the fall. Of course, it is a squirrel. Storerooms at it a set. She collects nuts, acorns, hides them in hollows, under roots of trees and in a moss. But also dries mushrooms as the thrifty hostess. Will find a mushroom, will drag on a tree and will attach in a fork of branches. In the winter of protein sleeps in a warm hollow much. And in solar days goes down from a tree to find the stocks.
the little birdie the nutcracker reserves nuts and acorns too. He hides them highly on a tree, in cracks and cracks of bark. In oak landings if they are near the house, in park or in the wood it is possible to meet a motley jay. To a jay the winter is not terrible - all fall she hid acorns and berries under roots of trees. In such storerooms happens on several kilograms of acorns. Often the jay forgets where what is hidden, and then on the place of the storeroom small oaklets grow.If the kid wants
, it is possible to play with toys houses forest animals who stock for the winter.
in the Summer gray, and in the winter?For certain the kid is familiar to
with a riddle about the hare and knows that for the winter it changes the gray fur coat for white. And whether he why so occurs will be able to answer? Truly, to become imperceptible on white snow. Here is how the hare - a white hare in V. Bianki`s fairy tale “Sinichkin a calendar“ told about it:“ Snowstorm covered up all tracks and brought me - here wolves ran nearby, and did not find me“. But snow not always helps hare to hide. Happens, as disturbs. On friable snow there are accurate hare traces, on them the fox in no time will find it. And it is heavy to run on such snow. And here dense snow - another matter. And it is easy to run, and any traces.Tell
to the kid that not only the hare updates “clothes“ for the winter. Many animals and birds put on winter fur coats too. For example, ermine and caress. At foxes and squirrels the fur coat becomes more dense and warmer. With such fur no frosts are terrible.
Well, and who the most known winter sleepyhead? Of course, bear. Late fall he gets into a den and there dozes till spring. The bear eats nothing all this time. He acquires (“nayedat“) fat in the summer and in the fall, and these stocks are enough for it for all winter. And the she-bear manages also to bring up newborn bear cubs.
But not only bears fall into hibernation in the winter. Suggest the kid to remember forest inhabitants and to think which of them goes to sleep to winter quarters too. These are hedgehogs, raccoons, badgers, bats. The hedgehog since fall prepares for himself a winter hole, covers it a grass, dry leaves and a moss. And then sleeps there till spring, having conveniently been curtailed a ball. Raccoons and badgers winter in holes too, and bats - in hollows of trees, in caves or on attics.
Suggest the kid to think why many animals sleep in the winter. In - the first, they are afraid of winter frosts - not each small animal can change clothes in a warm fur coat, and in dens and underground minks to them is warm and cozy. But there is also a second reason more important. The hedgehog likes to regale on insects, and not to get them in the winter. The bear, though seems big and terrible, eats, generally plants and berries. And what in the winter of a plant? And if in the winter itself cannot get a forage, it is better to wait hard times in a condition of hibernation. And wolves, foxes, hares and to themselves will find in the winter livelihood. Here also run all winter on the wood. Let the kid will think, than these animals eat in the winter.
Who departed and who remained?
Probably, the kid already knows that many birds with arrival of fall fly away to warm regions. But not superfluous will be once again about it to remember. Why one birds fly away, and others remain to winter with us? You do not hurry to be responsible for the child, give him the chance to argue a little, help leading questions. Where there live ducks and geese? Correctly, at small rivers and ponds. The river for them - both the house, and the dining room. And what happens to the rivers in the winter? Truly, they freeze. Means, it is necessary to look for to waterfowl other house. And what is eaten in the summer by swallows, than feed the baby birds? The flying insects. And in the winter insects fly? No, they hide from cold till spring. Then that in the winter many birds have nothing to eat, here and they look for the house in other places, warm and nourishing.
Why then sparrows and titmouses, crows and daws, jays and woodpeckers do not fly away? Just all of them can find in the winter for themselves livelihood: seeds and fruits of plants and even insects with their larvae under bark of trees. And if to get over closer to people, it is possible to profit the food remains which surely will be near housing. Talk to the kid about those birds who remained to winter. And even better try to see them and to observe them. First of all it is ubiquitous sparrows. Sparrow flocks can be seen on the flown bushes and trees practically always. Study a rhyme:
what I love a sparrow for?
that it such, as I:
When come cold weather,
does not depart anywhere.
Brisk titmouses are frequent guests too. They, generally eat insects who are pulled out from cracks in wood bark. Look how titmouses up and down trunks in search of insects scurry about. Observe with the baby crows and soroka. These birds are omnivorous: both insects eat, and grain, and various food waste.the Bird`s dining room
to Birdies - nevelichka which remained to winter together with us is necessary
hardly. In total - to reach a forage not easy - it is often hidden under ice and snow. And in the winter very cold, and the birdie needs more food, than in the summer. If the kid does not know or forgot partially about that big benefit which is brought by birds, tell him as titmouses and other little birds save trees from harmful insects. The more in the wood or in a garden, the trees are more whole than birds. Explain to the baby that in the winter of a bird perish not from cold, and for hunger. The full birdie will not freeze even in the most hard frost. And if you together with the child make and will hang up in park, on the fringe of the forest or near the house a feeding trough, then you not only will be able to observe birds, but also will make good and necessary deed. If the father agrees to help
, it is possible to build a feeding trough in due form. For this purpose the small plate or a fanerka to which it is necessary to attach low sides is required. It for four corners can be suspended on a branch, and it is even better - to strengthen on the wooden “leg“ hammered into the earth. Then the feeding trough will not be shaken from wind. Also the wooden roof will not prevent. If the feeding trough hangs in park, and you with the kid cannot visit there often, conveniently make an “automatic“ feeding trough. For this purpose fill with a forage a bottle, turn it a neck down and fix over a little table at distance of several millimeters. As birds eat a forage, from a bottle new will get enough sleep. That the bottle did not frighten birds, previously cover it with PVA glue, roll in in sand and dry up. Now it looks more “prirodno“ and naturally. If it is impossible to make a wooden feeding trough, the design can be simplified considerably. For example, having cut through a big window in a plastic bottle or a cardboard package from - under milk.What to treat with
birds? The best delicacy - sunflower and pumpkin sunflower seeds. It is possible to fill crumbs of white loaf. Such entertainment will be pleasant to any birdies. Various grain (millet, oats, millet, etc.) will attract, most likely, only sparrows. Bullfinches love berries of a mountain ash and elder. Titmouses can be indulged with pieces of unsalted fat or meat. Only do not put fat directly on a little table - will drag off ravens. Under weigh it on threads or delays to branches of trees. So to a crow fat is difficult to grab, and the titmouse will peck, having caught a piece pads.can be met by
of Whom at a feeding trough? If it hangs in the yard near the house, then the main yoursand sparrows and titmouses will be guests. To the forest dining room not only various titmouses, but also a woodpecker, and a nutcracker can welcome. Birds very quickly get used to a feeding trough and visit there constantly. If you walk every day with the kid approximately at the same time, try to make such experiment. Every day in certain hours fill in a feeding trough of sterns. And you will notice soon that birds know time of a lunch and gather at a feeding trough “in time“, expecting a delicacy. Sometimes all flock arrives at once, and happens, several sparrows - intelligence agents. The child for certain will like an opportunity to observe birds and their habits during a lunch. Having got used to people, birdies will admit you rather close. Only it is necessary to behave very much - very quietly.Forest walk
Any kid knows that a plastic shovel on the long handle - incredibly necessary and useful thing when on the street snow lies. And if by the time of forest walk snow already dropped out, it will be interesting to look how feel under plant snow. Dig out snow a shovel, rake old fallen leaves and - about a miracle! It appears, under snow the most real, live grass turns green. For certain it will be interesting to kid to learn why it does not freeze. Tell the little why-asker that snow is a warm blanket for plants. Under a thick snow layer many plants remarkably feel till the spring.
can Walk also to a reservoir, to see there with own eyes that the rivers and lakes for the winter freeze. Tell the kid about how river plants, fishes and river animals winter. Many seaweed, insects, small crustaceans freeze in ice, but do not perish. In the spring they will get warm and will recover. And fishes fall by the bottom in the winter. From above the river freezes, and below, near a bottom, there is a small layer of not frozen water. The frost, the less this layer is stronger. But all the same is enough for fishes. Do not leave at home to esteem with the kid of the book, suitable on a subject. Especially there is a lot of to oseena - winter stories it is possible to find at V. Bianki. It “Sinichkin a calendar“, “Where crayfish winter“, “A hare, kosach, a bear and Father Frost“, “On traces“, etc. And if in a house videoshop suitable animated films are found, they should be reconsidered together too.
the Calendar of supervision
the phrase “calendar of supervision“ quite often causes shudder in adults. At once school lessons of natural study and tiresome need to note daily the air temperature, rainfall, the direction of wind are remembered... But for kids, believe, is the most fascinating occupation and besides useful. With its help the baby will be able to consolidate all that knowledge which he gained during your remarkable walks. > by
it is simple to p to Make such calendar. Take a big sheet of paper, line on small squares by the number of days in a month. Small squares have to be quite big. From above largely you write the name of month. If it is possible to find in old books and magazines of the picture, suitable this season, let the kid will cut out them and will paste on fields of a calendar. Now every day you will sign the next small square with the kid: number and day of week, and in addition to represent in a section what you will consider necessary. It is possible to watch weather and to draw a certain symbol in a section: sun, cloudlet, snowflake etc. It is possible to learn to determine temperature by a thermometer. It is possible to draw everything that saw on walk: a titmouse, a crow, a mountain ash, a dog of a certain breed, traces on snow, etc. And it is possible to celebrate significant events in advance (birthday, a visit of circus, theater, etc.), and then to consider how many days to them remained.
Interesting and informative to you walks and occupations!