Rus Articles Journal

Smile as at a star of

of Breketa and other techniques of correction of position of teeth and a bite

can Quite often meet by

the people hesitating of the smile. A crack between teeth or the sticking-out cutter can become the reason of sincere experiences and uncertainty in themselves. And all this while the problem can be solved. Unfortunately, adults often hesitate to carry the correcting devices in a mouth, without knowing that the modern medicine is capable to offer the most different and that is very important, esthetic ways of correction.


When needs the doctor?

Recently the care about own health from the category of useful priorities passed

into the category of fashionable tendencies. Therefore such stars as Cindi Crawford, Leonardo DiCaprio or Britney Spears do not even think to hide that they are obliged by the faultless smile to the orthodontist. Beautiful equal teeth are not only a sign of health, but also a success symbol. Requirements to appearance of the person applying for the high vital status considerably increased, but it is not the only reason of special attention to bite problems. And economic success, and success in private life - all this in many respects depends on appearance. Therefore, correcting, for example, the wrong bite, the person not just gets rid of cosmetic shortcomings, but also tries to solve the social problems. In this regard in the last decades even more often adults become patients of the orthodontist - about 40% of the people who asked for the help, were above children`s age long ago. Many of those who already stepped 40 - a summer boundary try to improve situation of teeth before prosthetics.

provisions of teeth and a ratio of jaws can be various

of the Cause of infringement. Congenital anomalies can pass from father to son. The known example of such heredity - the lower jaw of representatives of a dynasty acting forward Gabsburgov. The size of teeth exceeding average values is also caused genetically.

emergence of anomalies is influenced by character of the eaten food. As heat treatment of food does it soft, the chewing device does not receive the planned loading, jaws at the modern person develop insufficiently. But the size of teeth remains the same, and, as a result, they lack the place in a tooth alignment. Even more often the nature tries to solve this problem independently and even more often the edentia - congenital lack of one or several teeth meets. Usually it is the eighth teeth, or so-called wisdom teeth, and also the second premolyara. Very often in medical practice it is necessary to face retentsiy teeth (a prorezyvaniye delay).

Addictions at children`s age (sucking of a finger, a baby`s dummy), injuries, rickets also promote development of anomalies of position of teeth and jaws. It in turn causes problems from outside visochno - a mandibular joint, leads to violations of work of chewing muscles that aggravates the course of diseases of fabrics of a paradont (gums) and is badly reflected in a hygienic dental health, promotes development of caries from - for decrease in hygiene, complicates, and sometimes makes impossible prosthetics.

of the Device of correction

of the Device, the correcting provisions of teeth, happen two types: removable and fixed.

Removable equipment . The correcting plates from plastic for the top and lower jaws, in particular, concern to her. They are made individually, on a mold, and contain screws, wire arches, loops or springs. They can will be applied as the only method of treatment, and in combination with the fixed equipment.

Fixed equipment . These are so-called briquettes which are in a mouth throughout all time of treatment. The word “bracket“ is translated from English as “arm“, “bracket“. Actually this “bracket“ represents a product, extremely difficult on a configuration, highly exact and yuvelirno made.

In world practice application the briquette - systems has centenary history. First briquettes were soldered on metal rings which were fixed on teeth by means of various cements. This equipment was rather labor-consuming for the doctor inconvenient and not esthetic from the point of view of the patient. Then special glue for fixing of briquettes directly on teeth was invented. Modern technologies allow to make more tiny briquettes and give to the doctor the chance to select them individually for each patient, taking into account individual parameters and esthetic requirements. Both adults, and children at whom all milk teeth managed to be replaced with constants can use this technique.


- the system includes briquettes, an arch, and the elastichesky ringlets called by ligatures (from Latin ligatura - communication). The wire arch is fixed in a briquette groove by means of a ligature. At the same time certain parameters (force, the directions of pressure) influencing movement of each tooth needing correction, and defining final interposition of teeth in an oral cavity are set. The parameters put in a briquette groove are called a briquette copy-book (there are several types of a copy-book which the doctor can use). The briquette is pasted to each tooth of a tooth alignment and sets the direction of movement, perceiving effort necessary for this purpose from an arch.

the Arch is the main part of the orthodontic device. Briquettes serve only for transfer of its power impact on teeth. Arches happen the different section and a profile, are made from nickel - titanic alloys, nickel - titanic with copper addition, the titan - molybdenum, the titan - niobium, etc. There are also arches superelastic, possessing so-called shape memory. Superelasticity is shown that the arch easily is established on unevenly located teeth and, coming back to an initial form, keeps constant pressure, optimum for orthodontic movement of tooth for a long time.

Usually a briquette - systems are located from the outer side of teeth and are called vestibular (from armor. vestibulum - a threshold).

Metal briquettes are the most reliable and effective. They well keep on the patient`s teeth, provide convenience at their use as have small thickness and practically do not injure a lip and a cheek. Sparkling “asterisks“ on teeth give to a smile additional charm. Moreover, at the request of the patient the doctor can change color of briquettes at each visit, changing color of elastichesky ligatures. Gold and titanic briquettes are offered.

Transparent briquettes (plastic, ceramic or sapphire) despite their such advantages as esthetics and practical obscurity on teeth, are less convenient in work. They are more fat than metal and demand the increased hygiene level. Plastic systems, besides, are quickly used up therefore are used only in rare instances. Qualitative ceramic and single-crystal (sapphire) briquettes possess the shortcomings - besides high cost. In these systems the friction between a briquette and an arch therefore treatment terms increase is noted.

the Last achievements in orthodontics are passive samoligiruyushchy briquettes , that is briquettes which fix an arch without the aid of a ligature. In them there are lids which hold an arch directly in grooves of briquettes. At the same time, as well as at usual fastening, various options of a copy-book - for every taste are possible. The main idea of a passive samoligirovaniye - use of very easy forces which work together with forces developed by face muscles, language and also bone structures and fabrics. Application of samoligiruyushchy briquettes allows to reduce considerably time of treatment and to treat successfully many difficult zubochelyustny anomalies without removal of teeth.

as a result the doctor and the patient save time as it is necessary to visit the doctor with such briquettes only once in 10 - 12 weeks whereas usually it is required to do time in 3 - 4 weeks. The doctor during visit controls process of treatment and activates actions of elements of the device.

of It is important! As briquettes needs to be carried without removing, it is necessary to be prepared for their installation: to cure all “problem“ teeth (for example, carious). In the course of treatment at the orthodontist it is necessary to visit the doctor - the hygienist and at least 2 times a year to carry out planned sanitation of an oral cavity at the stomatologist - the therapist.

the Invisible orthodontics

the Decision to straighten teeth is considerable for any adult patient understanding advantages of an attractive smile in everyday life. But many people do not seek to advertize the problems and to carry noticeable brackets. For them there is an invisible orthodontics.


If to the patient needs insignificant movement of teeth, it is possible to make it by means of transparent of plastic mouthpieces , each of which densely covers a tooth alignment from all three parties.

Usually a kappa are made by individually is rather inexpensive method. It is enough to remove a mold of a tooth alignment and to cast plaster model. Then under control of the attending physician the technician forms new position of tooth on the received model and makes a plastic kappa. When the moved tooth reaches the position set by a kappa, process of production of a kappa can be repeated, and so until the necessary position of tooth is reached. A kappa rush constantly and act only during toothbrushing and for the period of food.

Also some clinics offer

a treatment method by means of the Invisaling method. It differs from previous in the fact that the sets of transparent mouthpieces applied to treatment are made on all course of correction at once. Production happens in the Californian laboratory. There molds of tooth alignments and the photo of the patient are sent, and already there by means of the computer the set for all course of treatment becomes. From 30 to 60 cap enter it. These a kappa also are almost not visible on teeth, they can be removed for the period of food.

At both techniques with use the cap is the restrictions: with their help it is possible to correct only insignificant violation of a bite, and before difficult types of anomalies they are powerless. And the Invisaling method besides is very expensive.

Other method of treatment of invisible orthodontics - lingvalny briquettes . In the middle of 1970 - x years to the American orthodontist Greyvan Kurn (Graven Kurz) the idea to place orthodontic briquettes on inside of teeth came i.e. where they adjoin to language. Now this equipment is known as lingvalny orthodontics (from armor. lingua - language). In our country it began to be applied several years ago.

Besides the obscurity, lingvalny briquettes have some more differences from usual, vestibular. Specifics of the lingvalny equipment such is that the doctor should select carefully patients to whom this method is shown. Often the small height of a crown of tooth, i.e. the part of tooth acting over a gum appears restriction. The distance between briquettes and a gum has to be not less than 1 mm, otherwise treatment is complicated by a chronic gingivit and caries.

process of carrying lingvalny briquettes gives to the patient some inconvenience. Their main shortcoming is that, settling down in an oral cavity, they reduce its volume, therefore, language long adapts. In certain cases violation of the speech remains till 3 months.

Elimination of the reasons

of the Problem with a bite can be caused also by miofunktsionalny violations, i.e. with violations of functions of chewing and mimic muscles. Such patients need reorganization of muscular activity of a jaw. For this purpose silicone elastopozitsioner - removable two-maxillary orthodontic devices which level teeth can be used, train muscles and correct a ratio of jaws. Positioners can individually be made, and also industrially, for example similar on a kappa, but universal by the size treyner.

From a cap, plates and briquettes elastopozitsioner differ in other direction of influence. If briquettes affect directly teeth, establishing (positioning) them in the correct situation, action of elastic positioners is directed first of all to removing stress and excessive pressure on jaws and teeth from lips and language. And also they allow to get rid of addictions at children.

Adult patients can also use these devices for small correction (to 3 mm of shift). A clear advantage of elastopozitsioner it is possible to call the night mode of use: they are put on for two hours in the afternoon and for the night.

the best method?

So what technique, what equipment to give to

preference? It is possible to be guided by the most different reasons. For example, price question. If treatment cost usual briquettes makes about 35 000 - 90 000 rubles (depending on expressiveness of anomaly and age of the patient), then the cost of elastic positioners is much lower. If briquettes can be carried since that moment when all milk teeth were replaced by constants, then treyner appoint already to children with milk teeth when violations only begin to be shown. Possibly and combined use of various techniques. Not on the last place there are esthetic properties and convenience of the equipment. For example, lingvalny briquettes are imperceptible for people around, but demand longer accustoming, than usual. A kappa are almost imperceptible and convenient, but are capable to correct only insignificant deviations in position of teeth.

And still the decision in favor of this or that technique of treatment expresses to

rather a character and personal preferences of the doctor. Brilliant results depend not so much on a concrete technique how many from talent, clinical thinking and manual skills of the doctor. As there is no “a tablet miracle“ on light, so there is no most convenient equipment, there is only no right philosophy of treatment and “the most qualitative company“.

In the first days after installation of briquettes (procedure is absolutely painless) some discomfort in teeth and soft fabrics is possible

. Degree of unpleasant feelings is individual - from a slight itch to moderate pain, especially at a nadkusyvaniye. Accustoming takes from 3 to 10 days. During this period reception of the anesthetizing preparations is recommended and if the device injures mucous cheeks or lips, then it is necessary to use protective wax, having placed it on the device opposite to a trauma site.

Care of teeth on which briquettes are established requires special attention. It is necessary to brush teeth in front of the mirror not less than 10 minutes 2 times pass. After each meal teeth need also to be cleaned whenever possible or at least carefully to rinse.

should Carry briquettes on average 1 - 3 years. Concrete terms depend on many factors. Admissions of visits, non-compliance with recommendations of the doctor, and sometimes and individual reaction of an organism can significantly extend treatment term.

Scrupulous and patient treatment gives to

favorable long-term effect which concerns not only teeth. According to modern researches, the overwhelming number of the patients who completed a course of orthodontic treatment consider that it positively affected an organism in general. Besides as situation of teeth is improved, also the psychological health improves. And changes in appearance speak for themselves.


Forbidden products

When using briquettes needs to adhere to some restrictions. Nuts, drying, crackers can damage the orthodontic device. Meat, firm vegetables and fruit (carrot, apples and so forth) cut small pieces.

needs Whenever possible to reduce the frequency of consumption of carbohydrates: the candies, ice cream, drinks containing bolshoye amount of sugar in the course of which assimilation pH value in an oral cavity decreases.

the Food remains of some products (popcorn, chips) badly give in to removal from - for sticky consistences therefore it is better to refuse them.

Should limit to

the use of excessively hot and cold products as the difference of temperatures worsens property of arches.

At treatment by transparent briquettes should not use tea, coffee and some products with food additives which lead to coloring of briquettes and ligatures.