Rus Articles Journal

Premature children: the first days of the house

Premature kids after the birth need special leaving. It is fully provided by personnel of maternity hospital. But here the baby it appeared within the walls of a home. And now the responsible problem of its nursing completely will lay down on shoulders of parents. Depends on them as the child will grow and develop and when he catches upô with peers.


Relative normalization of the main vital functions of an organism not always, unfortunately, means that the premature newborn was finally made even to peers in psychomotor development. Therefore for the children who were born ahead of time at the place of residence dispensary supervision to 7 - summer age is established. Periodic consultations of experts, first of all the neurologist, the oculist and the orthopedist are obligatory. At the age of 2 weeks and further prevention of rickets is carried out: ultra-violet radiation - quartz treatment, addition in food on doctor`s orders vitamin D, massage, a hardening.

Primary patronage of the premature child is carried out by the local pediatrician and the nurse in day of an extract of the child from maternity hospital. Frequency of supervision by the local pediatrician and nurse is established individually, depending on specific conditions. The patronage children`s sister monitors development of the child and reminds parents that in order that the kid developed normally, with it it is necessary to be engaged laboriously and systematically (massage, gymnastics, swimming, display of toys, communication, music).

high rates of physical development are characteristic

Of healthy premature children. The smallest increase of weight falls on the first month, the greatest - on the third - the fourth. Deeply premature children double the initial weight to the second - the third month, and by a year increase it by 6 - 8 times. Children, the given rise weighing 1500 - 2000 g, double weight usually by three months, and by a year - increase by 4 - 6 times. Growth premature for the first year increases on average by 27 - 38 cm; on the second year of life - on 2 - 3 cm monthly. Average height of the premature child by 1 year reaches 70 - 77 cm. Monthly increase in a circle of the head in the first half of the year makes 1 - 4 cm, in the second - 0,5 - 1 cm. In general the head circle for the first year increases at premature by 15 - 19 cm and in one year makes 44,5 - 46,5 cm

the Restoring procedures

On the first year of life the organism of the child has great potential opportunities to restoration of the functions of bodies and systems damaged or late in the development. It is promoted in many respects by the individual developing and strengthening occupations including games, gymnastics, massage.

Classical massage is carried out by

with use of traditional receptions of a baby massage. In the first months of life skin at premature children thin, dry. In this regard it is necessary to begin a session of massage with the sparing receptions (stroking), gradually passing to more intensive (gentle vibration, easy grinding, pat, a razminaniye). Duration of performance of each reception - till 2 minutes.

the Stroking massage promotes relaxation of muscles. Begin it from 1 - 1,5 months of life, especially if at the kid the raised muscular tone is noted. Apply also other methods of massage later: easy grinding, razminany, pokolachivany and passive exercises with their gradual complication. These methods of massage and gymnastics to children with body weight at the birth can be applied less than 1500 only from 6 months, and to the children born weighing more than 2000 - from 2 - 3 months. After 7 - 9 months with the child carry out more difficult exercises, such as turn from a stomach on a back (rotation), crawling, a rising on all fours, a prisazhivaniye, a rising on legs (pritantsovyvany).

to Parents it is recommended to learn to carry out p various methods of classical massage as it is the best of all to spend this procedure at home. Methods of massage and gymnastics can be trained in an office on education of the healthy child at children`s policlinics by means of specially trained nurse, and in the absence of that - the patronage nurse.


applies also acupressure. It consists of pressing by one or two fingers on certain reflexogenic zones. Strong and short pressings promote increase of a tone of a certain group of muscles, and soft and longer influence leads to weakening of muscular tension. However if to methods of classical massage any can seize without effort, then the expert or one of parents who completed a full course of special training has to carry out acupressure.


of the premature child on a stomach promotes strengthening of muscles of a nape, extremities, a stomach, back. It a vykladyvaniye can be begun from the first days after the birth, for example before feeding, for 2 - 3 min., at first 1 - 2 time, then 3 - 4 times a day.

the Important tempering procedures - daily bathing of the child, air bathtubs, the rational thermal mode and walks in the open air.

of Walk is begun in the winter with two-month age at air temperature not below - 8 - 10 ° With, since 15 min. and to 1 - 2 h a day; it is possible to walk with the kid longer time in the summer.

When bathing premature children water temperature has to be not less than 37 ° C. At first bathing is carried out under a reflector. For the achievement calming, the weakening effect can be added to a grass bathtub, for example such as valerian root, sage, pustyrnik, St. John`s Wort, mint, camomile, marjoram, hop.

Recipe of preparation of such bathtub: on 1 teaspoon of each grass to fill in 1 l of boiled water in a thermos. To draw 4 h. To filter. To use 0,5 l of infusion on a children`s tray, adding water with a temperature of 37 ° S. Prodolzhitelnost of procedure - 10 min. within 25 days. After procedure not to rinse with water of the child, and to get wet with a towel.

of Feature of leaving

Of course, all parents the question disturbs: whether the premature child will lag behind in development further? Such lag can not be at all. However premature birth means that development began with other point. So, if the kid was born in two months prior to term, then in half a year it will be same as ordinary four-months children. Eventually all distinctions are erased.

Certainly, writing out the premature child home, the doctor will make to mother all necessary recommendations about further care of it.

to you should be supported by

also at home a certain temperature condition: in the room where there is a kid, has to be around 23 - 25 ° C. Though by the time of an extract thermal control of the child usually already works, he all the same should spend a lot of own energy for heating of the body therefore you have to create it comfortable conditions, otherwise all calories taken from food will leave on maintenance of body temperature, but not on an increase in weight. But do not forget - the child can and be overheated that is not less dangerous!

do not forget to sterilize small bottles and nipples if you use them for feeding.

Try that the kid did not contact to all relatives and friends who cannot wait to visit you: its resilience to infections is weak and there is no need to hurt to the kid at all. it is better for p to Feed with

the premature newborn to a thicket and small portions. It is not necessary to worry if it long remains at a breast: premature children suck not so actively, and they should give time to be sated. If you see that the child was tired, interrupt feeding, let`s it have a rest a little, then it is possible to finish feeding the kid the decanted milk. Consult to the doctor whether the special mix containing necessary minerals, amino acids and vitamins is required in addition to your breast milk. Now such additives which are dissolved in breast milk are developed and reduce risk of development of a vitamin deficiency in the premature child. The special attention should be paid to vitamin E as still vnutriutrobno the fruit stocks up with it from mother`s organism mainly in the last month of pregnancy, therefore, if the child was born before term, it needs its additional introduction.

Besides, to each feeding mother for the entire period of a lactation recommends to include in a diet a microcell selenium in a dose to 180 mkg daily. It is important for strengthening not only bones, muscles, vessels, nervous cages, but also immune system of all organism!

the Feeding up can be begun with

only with permission of the doctor. Usually the feeding up is entered when the child weighs 6 - 7 kg, eats about 1000 ml of breast milk or mix a day. If necessary the feeding up is appointed earlier.

be not frightened by

if the child from the first days does not begin to put on weight promptly. The first two weeks he can even lose flesh, begins to add, as a rule, with the third - the fourth week. The increase of body weight of the premature child in a week first averages 100 - 200. On the third or fourth month it will double the weight (for comparison - the full-term child doubles weight on the fifth month), and on the sixth - will treble (the full-term child will make it only at the end of the first year).

Should not torment itself with sense of guilt from - for the fact that the kid was born before term, and in this regard to show excessive care, too indulging him.

the Premature child - a being unusual and demanding the special relation to himself. But medical practice demonstrates that at due leaving and correctly picked up rehabilitation course even deeply premature children catch up with the peers on the key psychophysical parameters by 1,5 - 3.