Rus Articles Journal

For the one thousand first time - about coffee...

hardly can present the Majority of us the morning without traditional cup of coffee. For someone, perhaps, lack of it in general is similar to accident - I also belong to this category of people... Someone drinks coffee just on a habit, and for someone preparation of this drink is similar to a certain magic action - still many make coffee in the Turk, despite abundance on counters of shops of the coffee makers and coffee machines capable to considerably facilitate and accelerate process of preparation of coffee.

the chemistry has some

the caffeine which is Contained in coffee grains - the alkaloid reducing fatigue and increasing working capacity. By the way, in spite of the fact that pure caffeine is bitter, not it at all, and tannins (complex organic substances) give to coffee bitterness. Other alkaloid which is a part of coffee grains - trigonellin which participates in formation of aroma and taste of the made coffee.


When frying in coffee grains forms complex chemical - kafeol to which in combination with essential oils and coffee is obliged by the unique aroma. Kafeol contains 220 chemicals, but this figure is not final: use of new methods of the analysis allows to find all new and new connections in kafeol. Also carbohydrates are a part of coffee grains (glucose, fructose, etc.) lipids (fats) and unique substance - hlorogenovy acid, - practically anywhere any more not meeting and giving coffee the knitting smack and, besides, stimulating a nitrogen exchange in an organism.

history has some


Before becoming one of the most favourite drinks, coffee underwent many persecutions. So, in Europe it was called “black blood of Turks“ and “syrup from soot“. In Mecca coffee was damned by a name of Magomet, and those who broke a ban to drink coffee were sewn up in a coffee bag and thrown into the sea.

B 1674 of the resident of London appealed to the king Charles II to forbid coffee from - for “adverse effect of this weakening and drying-up drink on execution by husbands family and matrimonial duties“: men, in their opinion, spent too much time in institutions fashionable at that time - coffee houses.

Russia learned

about coffee in the 17th century thanks to the court doctor of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich Samuel Collins who registered it as medicine: “... Boiled coffee, Persians and Turks znayemy and usual after a lunch... fair there is medicine against nadmeniye, nasmorok and glavoboleniye...“ . Coffee at Peter I who fell in love with this drink during the stay in Holland and made its use obligatory for all attendees at court assemblies was widely adopted.

A little about technology

In the world more than 25 types of wild-growing coffee are, however practical application was received by only three - arabica coffee, robusta and a liberika. Arabica coffee is a grade of coffee with large oval grains, grows at the heights from 600 to 2500 m above sea level. An arabica coffee share in world production of coffee - about 90%. Robusta, whose grains more small, than at arabica coffee, and more round in a form, grows at the heights up to 600 m above sea level. In spite of the fact that in grains of robusta is twice more than caffeine, than in arabica coffee, its tastes are low therefore this grade is used for preparation of instant coffee and in small amounts is a part of various coffee mixes. Quality of fruits of a liberika not the highest therefore such grade of coffee is used seldom. This grade of coffee as well as robusta, use for creation of various mixes.

in the conditions of tropics where coffee grows, do not have pronounced seasons and therefore coffee grows ripe almost all the year round there. Coffee grains - both mature, and not ripened, - collect from branches, clean, dry and maintain within several years since drink from fresh-gathered grains will have grassy smack. The best grades of coffee have 8 - 10 - summer “endurance“.

the Following major step - roasting of coffee grains in the course of which in them there are major chemical reactions which are responsible for taste of a ready-made product. After roasting of grains of coffee affairs of the master create from them various mixes.

the Main supplier of coffee to the world market - Brazil, but, according to experts, the most qualitative coffee is grown up in Colombia, Guatemala and Costa - Ric.

Ways of cooking and...

Fastidious not to read the coffee maker to of
of !
the Most expensive coffee - Indonesian lyuvak (Kopi Luwak), called in honor of a small small animal who willingly devours the ripest and fragrant coffee grains which it however cannot digest. The coffee grains extracted from excrements of a small animal dry, fry and grind as well as usual coffee. It is considered that, having passed through zheludochno - an intestinal path of these animals, coffee grains undergo certain changes thanks to what coffee from them develops a magic taste. The small cup (about 40 ml) of such coffee to you will be offered in the Moscow coffee houses of “all“ for 1000 rubles.

Cooking of coffee in the Turk (or a cezve) - the classical way of preparation of this drink which came to us as it is easy to guess, from Turkey. Turca represents a metal vessel with a narrow throat. What caused such design? When foaming drink in narrow part Turks “stopper“ is formed of coffee powder which interferes with an exit of aromatic substances from liquid. One more indispensable attribute of a classical way of cooking - a food warmer - a box with sand and an electric spiral inside.

In the first half of the 19th century there were vacuum coffee makers consisting of two connected vessels: in the top vessel filled ground coffee, in lower - poured water. Having heated up and having evaporated, water rose in the top vessel then heating was stopped. In the lower vessel the vacuum was formed thanks to what the ready coffee “was sucked in“ back.

In coffee makers of geyzerny type of coffee is ready by repeated passing through ground coffee. Such coffee maker, as a rule, consists of three vessels: for water, for coffee and for ready drink. You put the coffee maker on a plate, the water which is in the lower part begins to boil, under pressure passes through coffee in the filter and rises in the top vessel. Minus such coffee makers is that water temperature in them heats up to 100 degrees, and optimum temperature for a zavarivaniye of coffee heating of water to 90 - 95 degrees is considered (as French speak, “boiling kills with coffee“).

Probably, much of you a sign so-called “a service jacket - a press“ or “the French press“ - the glass cylinder from fire-resistant glass with the piston. Having filled up in it ground coffee and having filled in hot water, it is necessary to wait for minutes 5 until coffee is ready, and to lower the piston. Speak, taste of the French coffee reminds taste of coffee made in the Turk.

the Most available electric coffee makers at the price are coffee makers of drop type (or filtrational). Cold water from the special tank passes on a contour, heats up to 87 - 95 degrees then on a drop flows down in the filter in which ground coffee is filled up. Ready coffee flows in a vessel - a flask. The possibility of preparation of coffee of different degree of fortress is provided in some models of such coffee makers. In filtrational coffee makers of high price level there is a filter for water purification, some of them are equipped with the timer. An important detail of drop coffee makers - existence of the autoheating heating a flask in a coffee preparation time. The filters used in coffee makers of drop type happen three types: paper disposable, nylon and so-called “gold“ which represents the metal gauze covered with a layer of nitride of the titan.

More advanced devices for a kofevareniye are espresso coffee makers. In translation from Italian “espresso“ - “squeezed out, pressed“. Advantage of these coffee makers in comparison with coffee makers of drop type is that thanks to a high pressure of the water passing through coffee from it not 15 - 18% of coffee substance, but about 25% are extracted, and at the same time the emulsion of essential oils giving a dense consistence of coffee - espresso is formed. You receive more fragrant and tasty coffee and at the same time save on a consumption of coffee grains.

Such coffee makers happen two types: Steam - Espresso and Pump - Espresso. In the Steam coffee makers - Espresso the water which is in a tight vessel heats up and evaporates which, having reached a necessary limit (3,5 - 5 bars), opens the valve and water passes through the tank in which coffee is filled up. The Pump coffee makers - Espresso cook better coffee. Water is in a boiler where the electromagnetic pump creates high (15 bars) pressure. Having heated up to 95 degrees, water forces the way through coffee.

Some models of coffee makers of espresso are equipped with the device for preparation of darling many cappuccinos - coffee with a magnificent dairy skin, namely - a kapuchinator.

Not so long ago in the domestic market there were coffee machines - units in which the coffee maker is combined with the coffee grinder. Their advantage is that the number of operations and time necessary for preparation of coffee are minimized. The fresh ground and stamped coffee from which not essential oils and caffeine do not disappear at all at once gets to zavarochny group. In 40 seconds from the beginning of “operation“ before you the most fragrant coffee. Your mission will be reduced only to filling of grains and cleaning of this unit though the last, it should be noted, is most automated too: light indication will inform you if the container for the used coffee is full, and time to include self-cleaning function came. Some coffee machines (mainly - built in) can directly be connected to system of water supply. Keep in mind that the coffee machine will need very many place in kitchen. The price of coffee machines - from several hundred dollars to several thousand.

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Summing up of

some results, it is necessary to tell the following: if you intend to get the coffee maker, get that which makes that coffee which you prefer - an americana, espresso, a cappuccino... And if to you to taste only coffee made in the Turk, then to you is not present sense to be spent for expensive unit which will become dusty in your kitchen. However the good coffee grinder (see below) you in this case very much is useful.


, Schur, grind... it is desirable for h2 to grind

of Coffee just before cooking. It is possible to grind coffee grain, of course, manually, but different ways of cooking of coffee demand various degree of a grinding, and it is difficult to reach it by means of a manual mill. The rough grinding is used for a coffee zavarivaniye in a service jacket - the press, average - for espresso, small - for coffee makers of drop type, and a superfine, powder crushing - for a coffee zavarivaniye in a cezve. Therefore, having bought the coffee maker, do not stint and buy the good coffee grinder with the grinding degree regulator - it is useful, believe.

Pleasant to you kofepitiya!:-)