Not to consider diamonds in stone caves of
Jewels, perhaps, one of the most surprising creations of the nature. For the sake of them go to the world`s end and go on a crime, they give inspiration and dement, curative properties are attributed to them, many legends, mysterious and fine are connected with them. All dream of them - kings and commoners, geologists and jewelers. Presently jewelry became more available, but, unfortunately, not all manage to get qualitative stones. Today we will talk about how not to fall a victim of deception from the seller or own delusion upon purchase of products from jewels.
Diamond, or diamond (from English brilliant - shining) - the best-known jewel. Diamonds it is accepted to call the facetted diamonds. As well as in advertizing, they do not need the detailed description, I will note only that diamonds happen not only colourless, but any flowers. Often the stones seeming to us colourless in practice have a subtle shade.the Mass of jewels is measured by
in carats. The cost of a stone depends from:
- of its weight;
- of purity, i.e. existence of defects;
- of color;
- of a facet.
This so-called rule of four With - carat, clarity, color, cut (English - carat, purity, color, a facet). Certainly, than the stone is larger, it is more expensive to those. For determination of deficiency there is a special scale, she will not be brought, and we will only note that defects of a surface are considered as a big shortcoming, than internal inclusions.Colourless diamonds are more expensive than
slabookrashenny, however stones of bright fantasy flowers - cognac, pink, green, is bright - yellow - are more expensive than colourless stones, similar on weight. The facet also influences the cost because happens technologically more and less difficult. Let`s note that diamond of an oval facet visually seems more, than the same round diamond on weight.
Any mineral has a number of technical characteristics, such as a certain luminescence in x-ray or ultraviolet rays or reaction to chemical reactants. But how to use these data in shop? If you have no mobile x-ray installation or the device for check of authenticity of banknotes, it is necessary to estimate a stone by means of sight.
such property of crystal stones as index of refraction and dispersion - ability to decompose a ray of light to a range Is. Diamond has the highest rates. In practice it means that the stone has to sparkle very brightly, that is in bright light has to have sharp differences from is dazzling - white patches of light to almost black. If to carry a stone far away from eyes, patches of light are painted in all colors of a rainbow. Those who were in Diamond fund for certain remember a show-window on which small diamonds laid out schemes of a round facet and a facet of “marchionesses“. At distance of five meters it seems that the show-window is laid out by stones of fantasy coloring, but at approach of color merge in white. Especially distinctly this effect is shown in soft light.
, however, the special device - the diamond detector based on unique heat conductivity of diamonds Is. It looks as a box of the size of a soap tray with the short probe on a wire. The probe it is necessary to touch one of stone sides, and if diamond real, the bulb on the case of the detector exactly burns. However, unfortunately, this device, such idle time in application, not easy to get. Besides unfair producers thought up a way to deceive the detector, making so-called doublets: the top part is made of diamond, from below, out of reach of the detector (depends on a frame), cubic zirconia is attached. With the naked eye such fake cannot be exposed, and any seller will not allow take out a stone from a frame.However original diamond is not enough to choose
, it is important to choose qualitative. Such serious defect of some stones as the wrong facet meets. Of course, if it is very attentive to look narrowly, it will turn out that there is no stone with ideal, absolutely identical sides, but there is one essentially important point - a certain ratio of height of the top and lower parts of a stone. It is necessary to look at a stone sideways if the frame allows to see it completely. The proper correlation of heights can be seen in any book about diamonds. This factor is important as this ratio helps light falling on “platform“ - the top side - to come back. Light passes in the “flattened“ stone through, in extended - leaves aside. As a result the stone sparkles less.I advise
Ya at the choice of jewelry with diamonds to be guided by solid shops and cost. Attempt save can cost much in such business. >
it is easy for p to confuse With diamond cubic zirconia - synthetic jewel with a high rate of refraction and dispersion. The insignificant external difference between them will be noticeable by their evident comparison: cubic zirconia gives nevertheless less multi-colored patches of light.
Rubin and sapphire
Rubin and sapphire are precious kinds of corundum (a non-noble kind of corundum the sandpaper known for all is). Rubies call corundum of red color, sapphires - blue, blue, green, violet, colourless (leucosapphires) and orange (still they are called a padparadzh). After diamond it is the firmest stone. However index of refraction at corundum low, and they almost do not sparkle.Should tell
that precious corundum - quite rare stones, and the large ruby costs several times more than the same diamond on weight. Besides corundum mines are now exhausted, and use darkly - blue, almost black sapphires which discarded earlier began.
Rubies - the first jewels which learned to synthesize. Synthetic stones on structure and properties do not differ from natural, are only grown up in the artificial environment, it is not a fake, but artificial analog. Synthetic rubies, as a rule, have no defects, defects in natural rubies do not reduce their cost, and are the proof of authenticity.
Natural rubies often contain small inclusions in the form of crystals or bubbles, are sometimes unevenly painted. Natural rubies are very expensive, natural sapphires at cost approach emeralds.Synthetic leucosapphires thanks to the hardness are widely applied by
in the hour industry as hour “glasses“: they do not become covered by scratches.Berill and its versions
Many met by
in fiction a mention of beryl , however very few people know what the stone is. Beryl has many versions differing on color, the emerald and aquamarine are most known. the Emerald has green color, it is quite expensive stone. You would not like to recommend to be guided at identification of stones by shades because they often depend not only on a type of a stone, but also on the field where it is got. The majority of emeralds in our shops have hardly noticeable yellowish shade, emeralds of Colombia - bluish. Deficiency of emeralds does not influence their cost.
Aquamarine has the blue color really similar to color of the morning tropical sea as it is accepted to speak. In our shops meets seldom. The most expensive kind of aquamarine is got in Brazil.
One more kind of beryl is hrizoberill , the yellowish stone. Hrizoberill changing color depending on lighting is called alexandrite . The stone received the name in honor of the emperor Alexander II Osvoboditel in whose day of majority in the Urals this stone was for the first time found. At a daylight alexandrite darkly - pink, when lighting by some types of lamps it becomes green. Frankly speaking, I do not imagine to what color the dress needs to carry it, most likely, to black not to lose with a combination of flowers. Alexandrite is equal at the price to an emerald, meets seldom, now in shops it is possible to meet the synthetic alexandrite costing much cheaper.
Topaz, tourist`s raspberries, grenades
Topaz happens different flowers: colourless, yellow, smoky, blue, light-blue, green, orange. On sale it is possible to see colourless, smoky and light-now - blue topazes. The index of refraction at topaz is higher, than at all other stones, except diamond, that is it sparkles quite brightly, scattering sheaves of patches of light.
Attention! In shops it is often possible to meet so-called raukhtopaz , the stone of smoky color, but is not topaz, and a smoky kind of quartz. This name has historical roots as in old times smoky quartz was often confused to smoky topaz.
Recently even more often began to be available for sale of tourist`s raspberry . These are stones of the most beautiful flowers - green, malinovo - red, blue, yellow, blue … and you will not list all. Jewelers like to use multi-colored stones in a necklace and earrings because though they and multi-colored, all of them have a specific shade they and together look harmoniously. Their price is approximately equal to the price of topazes.
of Grenades - an inexpensive stone. More often he is darkly - red, almost black, colors, but on sale happen also light-green grenades (remember a green stone in the garnet bracelet presented to the princess Vera Nikolaevna in Kuprin`s story “A garnet bracelet“), both black, and yellow. Synthetic grenades were very popular earlier, they and can be met now in old products, but now they are not used. Synthetic stones are larger natural, as a rule, have pink color and malodefektna.Turquoise we will pass
to semiprecious stones Now. The most expensive of them and, perhaps, one of the finest is turquoise . It is an opaque stone of blue or blue color with black streaks, in a form similar to cracks. The shade of turquoise changes depending on an origin. The most beautiful the Iranian turquoise of saturated blue color by right is considered, turquoise of Karelia dark, to a violet shade is close to it lighter Brazilian, and here. There is also a so-called young turquoise - white, with blue veins. Personally I happened to see it only once, in one of jewelry stores of Rio - - Zhaneyro.
Unfortunately, turquoise a stone rather rare, and among semiprecious stones the most forged. Forged it and in the Middle Ages, forge and now. And therefore very much I ask you, dear readers, do not buy turquoise on “disorders“! Yes, many semiprecious stones like aventurine there the presents, but all turquoise on “disorders“ counterfeit . Quite recently as its imitation served plastic. It is very easy to determine plastic by weight. Be not guided by color or a shade: paint can be added any. Take in a hand a product without metal frame (a bracelet, a beads) and reflect: whether can have a stone at such volume such weight? If the product easy, is an absolute fake. Therefore even more often sellers resort to ceramics, heavier, than plastic.
How to be? I can tell that turquoise has characteristic gloss which experts call wax, but if you did not happen to see the real stone earlier, be not guided by this criterion. In that case (yes, actually, and in any other) as the only criterion of authenticity can serve the place of purchase - solid shop, but not a stall to the subway or a portable little table of the dealer - and the price. The real turquoise costs much. Is as well the pressed turquoise, usually it is made of the Karelian raw materials, it is easy to recognize it by the broken-off streaks.
Quartz and its versions, malachite
Quartz is also a semiprecious stone and has many versions:
- of amethyst - a violet transparent stone;
- rock crystal - a colourless transparent stone which special difference is lack of internal defects;
- tsitrin - a yellow or orange transparent stone;
- smoky quartz - a transparent stone, on color similar to smoky topaz;
- pink quartz - as a rule, crystals have many defects and therefore are opaque; aventurine - is opaque
- , usually terracotta color, but happens and is dark - green, differs in presence of a large number of small golden spangles - mica inclusions;
- quartz - volosatik - translucent quartz with the mica inclusions reminding a bristle;
- chalcedony - the whole group of the opaque quartzes differing on color: chrysoprase - apple - green, a cornelian - it is red - orange, a carnelian - red, a sarder - brown, a heliotrope - it is dark - green with red specks:
- agate - subgroup of striate chalcedonies in which layers disperse concentric circles;
- moss agate - a stone with the inclusions similar to moss pads;
- onyx - subgroup of striate chalcedonies with a direct arrangement of sharply outlined layers.
quartz Crystals sometimes reach a half a meter in height, but as any crystal has a set of defects, its most transparent part recovers in gold (most often it concerns amethyst and a tsitrin), the opaque raw materials go on cheaper jewelry. I will not begin to stop in detail on quartz because its main versions are known to much; besides they are extremely seldom forged.so-called “eyes“ - cat`s, falcon and tiger , the representing accretions of quartz are close to
to asbestos, a blende and other minerals To quartz. All of them received the name from - for characteristic the striate patch of light similar to an animal pupil. A cat`s eye happens greenish, yellow and brown color. It is a rare stone, and very many become the victims of deception from the sellers who are giving out for a cat`s eye of its imitation from porcelain or glass. A cat`s eye does not happen brightly - blue or is poisonous - green color! And patches of light on its imitations are similar to anything, but not to a pupil. Be attentive upon purchase. Personally I only once happened to see the real cat`s eye in solid Moscow shop, and believe: it was absolutely unlike that it is on sale on “disorders“.
a Falcon eye has color is bluish - gray or is bluish - a green, tiger eye, as a rule, brown with dark strips.
Malachite - a green stone with longitudinal and circular strips of different shades green. On weight quite heavy. The malachite of Zaire widespread in our shops has a subtle bluish shade.
Amber represents the hardened pitch, is in large quantities extracted only in Russia. Color of its mainly all shades yellow, but happens both white (royal), and green, and reddish, and black amber. On weight it easy, is easier than any stone. The prices of amber are quite high, but in the Kaliningrad region is slightly lower and the choice more. The main lack of amber is the crystallization process beginning in it from the moment of contact with air. Eventually amber darkens and loses transparency. That it did not occur, it is heated - heat without oxygen access therefore there is new trouble - emergence of well noticeable cracks.
If it is honest, the choice of good amber - the patient for me a question. I cannot understand the people admiring fanlike cracks in amber. I have more to liking the yellow amber with opaque whitish layers which did not lose the original state.
the new manufacturing techniques of jewelry appeared Now: small pieces of amber mix with white plaster, and it turns out that - that like chaotic incrustation on plaster. There is also melted amber produced from small raw materials, but to distinguish from natural it simply: color reminds it very dark honey, such amber is almost opaque, and it is possible to notice in it small bubbles.
That chemically represents pearls , I think, all know. The pearls happen natural and synthetic, not imitation, and grown up in laboratory. The main producer of synthetic pearls is Japan now. Synthetic pearls more equal and brilliant, than natural. It is easy to distinguish river pearls from sea: it is small, in a form it is similar to crooked pearl-barley kernels. The pearls happen different flowers - white, pink, yellow, greenish, blue, black. The pearls are measured in millimeters in the diameter. Its price depends on color, gloss of a surface (how accurately the window - in the form of not clear white spot is reflected in it, say, or it is possible to make out window cover), the size and a form. Let`s note that with increase in the size the price increases unevenly: the pearl in 9 mm is twice more expensive than a pearl in 8,5 mm.
of Ideally round pearls does not happen therefore more or less round are appreciated more, than crooked, however also the copies having the fantasy form, for example, of a snail or a cat`s head cost expensive. Pear-shaped pearls are usually used in earrings. The application is found by both semicircular copies, and pearls in three quarters. From - for the fact that pearls quite easy, it it is easy to simulate plastic. Only the skilled expert is capable to define a fake, and therefore be attentive upon purchase.
Care of stones
needs to be able to look after any jewel correctly. I will list the basic rules of care of jewels and metals.
Diamond well attracts fat and quickly becomes covered by a grease film. The best means of cleaning - alcohol. The product should be lowered for half an hour in the container with alcohol. It is the most convenient to clean the dirt which accumulated in hard-to-reach spots an old toothbrush. It is the most convenient to wash out rings under a water stream, having strung on a wire. It is necessary to wipe a product soft, not fleecy matter, otherwise it is possible to damage frame cloves.
Avoid contact of jewelry with chloric lime and mercury: it can decolour a frame.
of the Product with diamonds should be stored separately from other jewelry. Of course, diamond the firmest stone, but sometimes happens rather light blow in a certain point that it broke up. Besides, other jewelry can suffer, and therefore you store products from precious metals and stones in separate cases or different compartments of a chest for the jewelry trimmed with soft material. Unfortunately, at us it is for some reason not accepted to sell expensive jewelry together with cases though it is widespread in the West, and therefore cases should be bought separately, and I advise not to save on packing: it will help to keep more expensive product.“ Grandmother`s caskets“ best of all will be suitable for products cheaper.
Wearing ornament, it is necessary to be attentive. In the course of use rings and bracelets are exposed to the greatest risk. One incorrect movement by a hand - and ornament can be broken, and therefore remove them in operating time on the house. Also the pendent on a long chain, for example, can suffer if you bend down, and it hits against a sink. Long earrings for the night should be taken off. From time to time examine a frame of stones regarding existence of damages.
Eventually turquoise darkens and becomes dark - green or brown. To prolong her “youth“, it is necessary once a week (at frequent use) to wash out a product cold water and to put to dry on a towel.
Topaz - a stone with which it is necessary to be on the lookout. It is impossible to heat it at all. One my familiar jeweler repaired a ring with smoky topaz. The stone incidentally got to a flame of a torch and … became colourless. However, over time color was restored, but to experiment I do not advise. The same occurs, only in limited scales if long to hold stones on light, especially solar, it is told in gemological literature, and I as the owner of topazes confirm. Gemologists also say that if just to compress topaz fingers in a certain point, it will be electrified that speaks about its vulnerable structure.Grant
, the most vulnerable material - pearls. He does not suffer contact with fats, then, spirits, bleaches, soda, air, sulfates, etc. It is impossible to use ultrasonic cleaning and a brush.“ Wipe the pearls which misted over“ with wet soft towel wipes. Experts advise to change a string of a necklace approximately each three years and to tie small knots between pearls. You should not store necklaces in the suspended look in order to avoid dust hit. The rule of storage in separate packing because it easily becomes covered by cracks is also applicable to pearl earrings and rings. You should not subject pearls to long influence of sunshine.
Jewelry - one of the most important and responsible acquisitions. You approach purchase of jewels with due gravity, you remember that your children will get them.
Allow to give finally to you some more advice. I will repeat that it is necessary to give preference to solid shops, but not doubtful outlets, and it is not necessary to seek to save at all. If you are not sure of the knowledge and skills of determination of quality and authenticity of stones, do not neglect the help of the knowing person, let it will be your relative or the acquaintance, or the checked jeweler. After purchase surely keep commodity and cash checks, a label and shnurochek with a seal. In the cash-memo test of precious metals, the name, quantity and mass of the stones entering a product has to be surely specified. Otherwise after detection of shortcomings of goods you will not be able to make a complaint.
to Readers who want to learn as much as possible about jeweler stones and to learn to understand them, it is possible to advise to read special literature and to go more often to jewelry stores and to exhibitions for evident studying of stones.I Wish