Dysbacteriosis at babies of
of One of the most important problems concerning parents of babies was, is and there will be a condition of digestive organs of the kid. Nothing surprising - how the child eats, how his intestines function, both development, and immunity formation, and even mood of the baby depends. The kid himself at the slightest trouble from digestion loudly signals about it, installing in the parents still big alarm. So stands behind the majority of cases of intestinal gripes, infantile locks, gipovitaminoz and uneasy behavior?
Intestines and its “inhabitants“
Having been born, the child gets from absolutely sterile environment of a maternal organism to the world occupied by a huge number of various microbes. It cannot remain sterile long time. Practically right after the birth its organism begins to become populated by representatives of the microbic world. The child`s intestines partially become populated by microbes even in the course of childbirth when the kid moves ahead on patrimonial ways of mother. After the first portion of food gets into a stomach, intestines become habitat of many microorganisms. Their number gradually grows and eventually becomes so considerable that the calla of the child is the share of each 3 grams 1 gram of microbes! Dwelling in intestines of such quantity of microbes is very useful not only to microbes, but also the person. Such mutually advantageous coexistence of a human body and the microbes existing in his intestines is called symbiosis .All microorganisms of intestines are divided
into two groups. The first group is called obligate flora . These microbes have to be present at intestines surely. It is made by microbes without which there can be neither normal digestion, nor resistant immunity, nor good health. These are bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and colibacillus. Also this group includes bacteria - the saprofita which are not exerting any impact on health of the person - neither positive, nor negative. These are bakteroida and enterokokk. The group of obligate microorganisms the most extensive, it makes about 97% of total number of microbes of intestines.
the Second group is called facultative flora . Its presence at intestines is not obligatory. Moreover, under adverse conditions to which decrease in immunity, infections, a stress belongs the trauma, errors in food, microbes from this group can become pathogenic (pathogenic) and, having bred in a large number, to cause clinical displays of intestinal infection. Among them there are microorganisms called conditionally pathogenic (klostridiya, klebsiyela) and microorganisms which presence at the child`s intestines normal should not be. It staphylococcus, proteas, barmy mushrooms of a sort Candida. Being conditionally pathogenic for the adult, for the baby they become pathogenic by all means, that is if in the adult these microorganisms cause a disease of I only in certain cases, then in the child always.Telling
about the microbes living in intestines it is necessary to stop especially on group of useful microbes. It is of a lactobacillus and of a bifidobacterium , being a protective factor number one. Existing in intestines, they, in - the first, create the conditions absolutely not suitable for life of pathogenic microbes there. Thus, they provide with the activity protection of intestines against excess growth conditionally - pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms. In - the second, these microbes stimulate production of own immunoglobulins by immune system of the child - a reliable board on the way of an infection from the outside. In - the third, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli promote development in intestines of natural vitamins, such as B6 B12 and folic acid. In - the fourth, these microorganisms promote absorption in intestines of such important components of food as iron, calcium and vitamin D. And, at last, they stimulate a vermicular movement (motive function) of intestines.the Proper correlation of number of bacteria in intestines is very important
, at its violation there is a decrease in immunity, so, the risk of intestinal infections increases, arises gipovitaminoz, anemia from - for insufficient intake of iron and rickets - from - for deficiency of calcium and vitamin D can develop. Here in what the sense of this symbiosis consists, here what price is paid to us by microorganisms for honor to exist together with us!by
As forms intestinal microflora?
So, the child is born with sterile intestines. Contact with the objects surrounding it in the delivery room becomes the first collision with the microbic world, excellent from maternal. In patrimonial ways of mother lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, colibacillus normal prevail. Passing on patrimonial ways of mother, the child is infected with these microorganisms, and they partially occupy him intestines.However these microbes have not enough
and the immune system of the newborn is still too imperfect fully to resist to an impact of alien microbes. Therefore the first minutes of life of babies stack to mother on a stomach - her skin gives part of the microflora, protecting the child from primary settling by others microbes.But the first applying to a breast is even more important
. When the newborn baby takes a maternal nipple when the first drops of colostrum get into his stomach in a mouth, there is laying of the base of health of the child. Colostrum of mother is really a well of the most various protective factors causing formation of both immunity, and intestinal microflora. Colostrum contains the so-called bifidogenny factors promoting growth irreplaceable bifidobacteria. Getting into the child`s intestines in the first two hours of his life, bifidorgenny factors create there conditions thanks to which the bifidobacteria received by the newborn at the birth do not perish, and, on the contrary, grow and breed, forming normal intestinal microflora. Besides, colostrum contains the immunoglobulins produced by a maternal organism in response to those infections which she had for the life. Thus, the kid receives a peculiar inoculation, and this immunity will protect him for all first year of life. Does not raise any doubts the fact that those babies who were attached to a breast in the first hour of life quicker and more safely overcome process of formation of intestinal microflora, at them violation of a microbic landscape of intestines develops less often, they put on weight much better.
over the next 3 - 5 days of life of the child the accruing infection of intestines with various microorganisms among which along with colibacillus, conditionally pathogenic microorganisms at rather large number are present bifidobacteria, lactobacilli also happens. As a result of it for the first week after the birth the intestinal dysbiosis develops tranzitorny (temporary, passing). It is shown in the form of an unstable watery chair, existence in it of a large amount of slime, greens, and also spastic belly-aches, vomiting. But already by the end of the first week there comes the following phase of microbic settling of intestines when bifidobacteria and lactobacilli begin to force out other representatives of the microbic world.
the Tranzitorny intestinal dysbiosis is not a disease and in the absence of the burdening factors (prematurity, long reception of antibiotics, infectious diseases) safely comes to the end on the second week of life of the child. However a number of the major conditions is necessary for formation of normal microflora - early (within the first hour of life of the child) applying to a breast, is exclusive breastfeeding for the first month of life of the kid and, ideally, joint stay of mother with the child. At non-compliance with these conditions the risk of development of true dysbacteriosis, and together with it and food allergy, violations of digestion, decrease in immunity, repeatedly increases.
Dysbacteriosis: what disturbs the kid?
the Baby in whose intestines the quantitative and qualitative structure of microflora is broken often behaves uneasily, it interrupts a sleep from - for painful intestines spasms which have pristupoobrazny character and are shown in 1,5 - 2 h after feeding. Practically always it is followed by an abdominal distension owing to the strengthened gas generation, rumbling on the intestines course. Owing to an abdominal distension and violation of advance of food on intestines vomiting and vomiting are noted. In especially hard cases the intestinal dysbiosis is followed by a malabsorption syndrome (violation of absorption of nutrients in a small intestine) that is shown by a diarrhea (foamy in kcal with a sour or putrefactive smell) and decrease in rates of an increase of body weight. And as the intestinal dysbiosis - process always secondary, developing against some main trouble in the child`s organism (intestinal infections, reception of antibiotics, prematurity, the wrong feeding), accession of a syndrome of malabsorption in a bigger degree aggravates weight of a course of this disease.
At many kids against dysbacteriosis persistent locks as in the absence of normal number of bifidobacteria the substance stimulating sokratitelny activity of intestines is not produced in due quantity develop.
On the current dysbacteriosis happens compensated and noncompensated.
At compensated an intestinal dysbiosis do not have
of clinical manifestations. The child feels quite well, and violation of a microbic landscape becomes a casual find when the analysis a calla (by the way, this research to serve as the main laboratory criterion of dysbacteriosis) is handed over absolutely in other occasion.
Noncompensated dysbacteriosis is followed by all those clinical signs about which it was told above. In such cases of complaints there is a lot of and the question of that, needs the child treatment or not, does not rise. Parents of the kid seek to conduct as soon as possible the most effective course of treatment to relieve the child of sufferings.
As for the first case when there are practically no complaints, the kid well gains weight, perfectly or quite well sleeps, there is no display of an allergy obvious, parents ask a traditional question: “Why to treat the child if nothing disturbs him?“ At children of more advanced age business and is - if the compensated intestinal dysbiosis is found, then it, as a rule, does not need treatment. This issue at babies is absolutely in a different way resolved - at them dysbacteriosis needs treatment anyway because such small children have compensation of the broken intestinal microflora - a state temporary and very unstable owing to imperfection of immunity. At the slightest violation of this balance (and it both the teething, and an inoculation, both overcooling and transfer to artificial feeding, and simple cold, and even can cause a stress) dysbacteriosis becomes noncompensated. For this reason any dysbacteriosis at babies needs treatment which has to be strictly individual, weighed, based on laboratory data, complex.
Treatment and prevention of dysbacteriosis
One of the most important moments in treatment of dysbacteriosis is breastfeeding. Any child needs maternal milk as long as possible for the first year of life. Children with displays of an intestinal dysbiosis - especially. As it was already told, maternal colostrum contains a set of the substances promoting formation of normal microflora and protection from conditionally - pathogenic microorganisms. But also mature maternal milk it is not less valuable from the point of view of prevention of violations of intestinal microflora. It not only provides optimum conditions for growth of healthy microflora, but also maintains the existing balance between bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and colibacillus, helping implementation of full digestion and preventing development of allergic reactions.
However at impossibility of breastfeeding needs to give preference to the adapted mixes enriched with protective factors. It and acidified milk formulas; and the mixes containing live bacteria; and mixes which part prebiotics - the substances helping assimilation and reproduction of healthy microflora are. All these mixes can be applied only on doctor`s orders.
After bacteriological research a calla and statements of the diagnosis treatment (correction of microflora) has to consist of two stages.
the First stage includes suppression of growth of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. It is reached or by means of special immunopreparations (bacteriophages) possessing ability to absorb and dissolve in itself microbic cages, or by means of intestinal anti-septic tanks or antibiotics. Practically always when carrying out bacteriological research the calla is carried out also determination of sensitivity of conditionally pathogenic microbes to this or that bacteriophage or an antibiotic. Certainly, use of bacteriophages is more preferable. If for any reason their application is impossible, then it is necessary to choose those which, working only in an intestines gleam, do not get to blood from a number of antibacterial preparations and do not make the general impact on an organism.
the Second stage of correction of a microbic landscape of intestines pursues the settling aim its healthy flora and creations of the conditions suitable for its growth. Along with already mentioned prebiotics for this purpose are used by of a probiotics - preparations which contain live microorganisms, such as bifidobacteria known to us, lactobacilli and colibacillus, and also the products of their activity helping them to lodge successfully in intestines. The course of treatment is appointed in each case by the doctor. Prebiotics contain indigestible substances which make favorable impact on growth of healthy microflora, and makes active it. The laktuloza, oligosaccharides, cellulose concerns to them. These components besides stimulate motive function of intestines, helping to cope with locks.
As to prevent development of dysbacteriosis in the kid? First of all, planning pregnancy, future mother needs to conduct examination at the gynecologist in time to reveal and cure possible violations of flora of genitals. If pregnancy already came, then to take care not late of it now - now enough means allowing to carry out such treatment during pregnancy. It is necessary to watch carefully a diet, to avoid reception of antibiotics, to lead a life healthy in every respect. Besides, it is useful to take an interest in maternity hospital in advance whether practice in it joint stay of mother and child and how soon after the delivery newborns are put to a breast.