Rus Articles Journal

From where the two come?

in the first class prepare For training both parents, and children. It is clear, that all can have no identical level of preparation. Teachers try to find an individual approach to each first grader, advise parents concerning training, advise how it is better to make a daily routine. As a rule, if small difficulties with reading, the letter or mathematics arise, then by the end of the first half of the year of mistakes becomes much less, handwriting improves, the child already himself solves examples and problems.

However if the quantity of mistakes increases and it is not possible to perform correctly in any way and accurately tasks and reading remains at a low level, then interest in training begins to decrease. The pupil experiences strong experiences, he is abused also at school, and by houses. As a result of difficulties in training and decrease in informative activity appear the two.

Always the unsatisfactory assessment is a result of a defect of parents, the pupil or the teacher? As practice shows, there are such violations in the letter, reading or mathematics which can be overcome if in due time to ask for the help experts: to the logopedist, psychologist, etc. The main thing, in due time to define nature of these violations. Below we will consider some types of mistakes which have “not pedagogical“ character. So from where the two come?

Door the first : in the first months of training the teacher pays attention of the school student that he writes inaccurately, in notebooks “dirt“. These problems sometimes are temporary, and gradually handwriting becomes better, letters “rise“ on a line. And if pedagogical receptions do not help if, despite efforts of teachers and parents, the pupil cannot write accurately?

At the first grade level the school student writes

with large letters. It is connected with the fact that by the large letter less relative difference between the movements of a hand and a tip of the handle, that is is simpler and more available “reencryption“ of sounds in letters or printed characters in written. Further the child is learned to transfer to a handle tip at first visual, and then and muscular corrections, gains ability to automatically provide to the handle a necessary trajectory.

Becomes clear that if eyes “do not direct“ a hand if, for example, writing raises shoulders and strains a hand, then formation of accurate handwriting will be complicated.

to help the child with this situation, consultation of the psychologist and logopedist is necessary for

. If necessary the set of exercises which is carried out by the expert is appointed.

Door the second : in written works there are mistakes which cannot be explained from the point of view of spelling. The pupil passes letters, rearranges them or, on the contrary, adds superfluous.

the Admission of letters is connected by

with the fact that the child does not allocate all sound components in the word, i.e. does not own the sound analysis of the word: of “snka“ instead of “sledge“ , “kichat“ instead of “shout“ .

and syllables are connected by

of Shift of letters with difficulty of the analysis of sequence of sounds in the word. Shifts in the words having confluence of concordants are most frequent: “yard“ is written as “dovr“ , “brother“ as “Barth“ . The quantity of syllables at the same time can remain:“ carpet“ - “korvy“.

are observed by

of the Insert of vowels at confluence of concordants: of “devochik“ instead of “girl“ . It can be explained with the fact that the child when writing the word pronounces sounds and involuntarily stretches them.

wrong double writing Also meets when in the words beginning with a capital letter it is written same, but already lower case: Rruchy , of Oosen . These mistakes - result of mechanical fixing of the count - motor skills to which give written exercises in some copy-books where samples of letters are offered in a look: of Rr, Nn ...

Mixture of letters which indicates that writing allocated a certain sound as a part of the word, but chose for him other letter: “a thick (thick) log“, “zkazka (fairy tale)“, “jacket (jacket)“, “ptsitsa (bird)“ .

Researchers note that mixture of letters can be on optical and kinetic similarity. We give part of the table of N. I. Sadovnikova`s book “Violations of written language and their overcoming at younger school students“.

Examples of letters of a cursive, having similarity

of optical kinetic
of with - e about - and
of about - with x -
of of l - and of l - m
of of m - sh of N - yu
of in - d of l - I

according to the author, in prevalence of kinetic mixtures play a negative role the illegal requirement of “bezotryvochny“ writing of words without stage of step-by-step writing of letters.


It is obvious that work on correction of similar mistakes can be successful only during the additional correctional work which is carried out by the logopedist, the psychologist, if necessary and the doctor. For example, at mixture of letters on optical similarity it is possible to advise the child to pass survey at the oculist.

Door the third : violations of the letter, reading and mathematical operations can be connected also with an originality of formation of nonverbal functions:

  • of process of a lateralization (allocation of the leading hand, leg, eye and ear which can be created in various combinations, for example, of PPLL or PLPL etc.) ;
  • of spatial and temporary orientations (idea of an arrangement in space of objects, symbols, feelings of own body, understanding of temporary sequence, for example, “earlier - later“);
  • of motive functions of a hand;
  • of hearing - motor koordination (the analysis aurally nonverbal sounds - knock, cottons, and also reproduction of a rhythm aurally), i.e. not formation of accurate communications between motive system and the acoustic analyzer.

to help such pupils, it is necessary to consult at experts. They will pick up necessary korrektsionno - developing exercises.

the Main features of development “children - levshat“ are described by

in the book of the famous neuropsychologist, professor Anna Vladimirovna Semenovich “These improbable lefthanders“, concrete recommendations for teachers, parents, psychologists and speech pathologists are made in the same place.

If at the child are insufficiently created by

spatial and spatially - temporary representations, then it can be shown, for example, in the wrong arrangement of signs by the letter, shift of letters when reading, especially unknown words, in difficulty of the solution of tasks and examples that affects further intellectual activity in general.

Door the fourth : features emotionally - the strong-willed sphere of the child. As practice of psychological consultation shows, the school student can feel the emotional concern passing into a disturbing condition of expectation of failure. For the children sensitive to an assessment of the teacher or parent, acceptance of “disciplinary“ measures can be too strong. Instead of mobilizing activity, it on the contrary reduces a self-assessment to critical level.

the mark given “for prevention“, perhaps will turn out

For pupils who are not so sensitive to remarks of adults stimulating, but only in case this measure is used seldom.

Creation by the teacher or parent of a situation “today at you turns out better, than yesterday“ always lifts the child`s self-assessment, gives confidence in the forces. Happens it is useful to look through notebooks which were filled several months ago. If you noticed improvement in works of the pupil (at least in one of objects), surely pay attention to it.

in conclusion would like to note

that many school problems manage to be solved joint efforts of teachers, parents and experts. For the last years psychologists note that the number of requests of parents for consultations increased. If the situation with estimates of the child disturbs you - ask for the help, overcoming of school difficulties is possible.