Puzzles and compound pictures of
Today the market of toys literally dazzles with the puzzles connected with drawing up pictures. - - even adults are fond of the most difficult of them of puzzles. At the same time there is a natural question: the child how needs similar occupations? What it is empty entertainment or the useful developing activity?
Step by step
Modern compound pictures represent diverse variations of game - a golovolomoka which essence consists in that from separate pieces to collect the whole image.
Before beginning assembly, the child has to present that it collects, otherwise, at it there has to be an image which will direct its actions. And the kid needs to hold mentally this image, learning whole in separate parts. At the same time it has to correlate pieces among themselves and to all picture, i.e. to find for each piece the, only the right place. Otherwise the picture will not turn out. All this, certainly, demands from the little person of a serious brainwork, attention and concentration. Such thinking in psychology carries the name “visually-figurative“ as the child mentally operates images, leaning at the same time on evident material.
Compound pictures happen different in complexity level, and this level has to increase with age.Can allocate with
to four types of compound pictures :
- of of the picture - inserts which are put in a ready form;
- cutting pictures ;
- cubes with pictures on all sides;
- puzzles .
of the Picture - inserts, cubes or cutting pictures - rather traditional games. And here puzzles rather won recently counters of toy shops. The quantity, the size and a form of details, a plot and decorating of compound pictures happen the most different and depend on age for which game is intended. If - inserts can play with pictures 2 - summer kids, then puzzles intend to children is more senior.
But before speaking about their merits and demerits, we will dwell upon each of the listed groups.
of the Picture - inserts
the Picture - the insert represents the picture with the cut-out parts. It is necessary to find missing pieces and to enclose on the places that the complete image turned out. For example, vase drawing with fruit in which separate fruit are cut out. This game is intended for children from 2 to 4 years. Its task can be expressed the question “what is not enough here?“ . Usually children in two years rather easily cope with inserts, for example with such as number of vegetables and fruit or number of doggies of an identical form, but different size.
Thus, occupations with pictures - inserts are very good for formation and development only appearing at the kid visually - figurative thinking.by
it is necessary to Choose pictures - inserts proceeding from age of the child: than it is younger, has to be less cut out by that pieces, and details are larger.
In the simplest option of this game the cut-out fragment has smooth edges, and the drawing represented on it - is symmetric (for example, a symmetric camomile on a piece - a square). Or the form of a piece corresponds to the image: the cut-out cup, a saucer, a spoon etc. In these cases to the child to cope with a task, it is necessary just to understand from what part of the picture this element. To complicate a task, it is possible to offer the kid the picture with the uneven, but not coinciding with drawing borders edges of cuts.
It is even more difficult for child to cope with the picture which cut-out parts have smooth edges, but the image located on them is asymmetrical: for example, on a square the birdie is drawn - the child should watch to putting her head over heels. Or each piece represents not a separate image, and only its part, for example a fragment of a vase or a flower. Here the child is forced to be guided by a form of cut and the corresponding piece (the circle is inserted into round cut, a triangle - in triangular), and also to consider the maintenance of drawn, to correlate image details, all lines, colors and an arrangement of drawing. These pictures - inserts represent special complexity for the kid in connection with age features, and at some stage he will need the help of the adult. However similar games prepare base for successful development visually - figurative thinking. The got experience will allow the child easier to cope with much more difficult puzzles - puzzles.
the Cutting picture is the picture cut on straight lines (as a rule) to lines. The child should not think of a form of pieces, and he can concentrate on the image. This occupation well is suitable for children from 2 to 5 years. The matter is that yet the kid is not 5 years old, it is quite difficult to it to be guided at once in two parameters - in a form of pieces (how the picture is cut) and to contents (that is represented). However at this age cutting pictures in the greatest measure promote development visually - figurative thinking.
the simplest cutting pictures are the images of separate objects familiar to the child (a bucket, a lodge, a butterfly) cut on two symmetric parts. Complexity of collecting of the picture increases with increase in quantity of parts and with the advent of a plot. Kids of game with cutting pictures are given huge pleasure. For example, the house divided into parts (“roof“, “wall“, “basis“) can be “built“. Thanks to such game at the child concentration, observation, imagination, visual perception develop and complete ideas of a subject are formed.Buying
or independently making cutting pictures, it is necessary to pay attention to the next moments: the image on the picture has to be recognizable (in this regard a bear for the European child better, than a rhinoceros, and the rhinoceros - is better, than a cuttlefish); the colors used in drawing have to be bright, but not irritating; the quantity of details has to correspond to age.
Compound pictures on cubes have the feature connected with a cube form. The fragment located on each side is already not just part of the flat image. That the picture turned out, it is not enough to put a cube on the place, it needs to be turned the correct party. Compound pictures on cubes assume existence of elementary idea of a cube. This type of compound pictures carries out the developing task for children from 3 - 4 to 6 - 7 years. Acquaintance needs to be begun with four cubes on which the image of some separate subject is placed (fruit, a doggie, the machine etc.) . Offering game, all cubes need to be turned one picture up - it simplifies a task, the kid needs to arrange them in the correct order. In process of development by the child of this game the task needs to be complicated: at first to turn one cube not that party and to ask the child to find on it missing part of the picture, then to make the same with two cubes, with three. Gradually the child will accustom to this game.to it can offer Now
the subject image on pictures (for example, a scene from the familiar fairy tale).Than cubes are good
? Many of them are executed in one style, for example on all parties - scenes from fairy tales, and on three parties the events which are taking place in a log hut, and on other three - in the wood are drawn; all parties are painted in one color scale. Therefore sometimes it is even hard for adult to define at first sight whether the correct party turned a cube. Not to be mistaken, it is necessary to be very attentive and patient.
Important points at the choice of cubes: unity of style, color scale, similarity of a plot and the level of complexity corresponding to age. Such cubes will most effectively carry out the developing task.
puzzles differ From the compound pictures given above in a curve of connection of details. This, apparently, insignificant difference changes nature of activity of the child. Collecting puzzles, it is necessary a form of each curve piece with difficult edges to correlate to a form of the next, same difficult pieces and to make so that they coincided, i.e. from separate pieces the continuous plain surface turned out. This already in itself appears quite difficult task for the kid. But, collecting such pictures, the child has to consider not only a form of elements, but also what on them is represented. To 4 - 5 - summer age game with puzzles have no relation to work of figurative thinking as it is difficult to consider two signs at the same time. A form for the kid - simpler and significant sign, than contents. In other words, kids pay attention to a form of pieces, at the same time without noticing the picture. Nevertheless since 4 years the child can offer puzzles from small quantity of details for acquaintance to this game.Puzzles are very different
both on complexity, and on a way of action. The simplest are puzzles on which each piece the separate, recognized by the child image is represented (a small fish, a cloud, the boy on a samoletika). Usually these pictures have a frame with “bottom“, some kind of support at which the lines repeating a piece contour are drawn. As the whole image is perceived easier, the child of 4 - 6 years suits this simple option more.the picture is cut by
In more hard cases on a large number of parts (in the full option it usually is located on a box cover). Often details are at first sight almost indiscernible between themselves. Therefore it is almost impossible to find the place for each piece, being guided only on drawing or color scale (puzzles with the image of the sea or the sky are that, for example). Here ability to be guided by a form will help.
Collecting of puzzles demands new, in something more formalistic approach to game. If in the previous compound pictures it was much simpler to begin with the recognizable moments, for example, from an animal muzzle that considerably simplified game, then in more difficult puzzles it is necessary to set at first the general form in which numerous pieces will be put. For achievement of success it is better to begin unfolding with a picture frame. Often the child sees that he caught the subject line correctly and “this piece has to be somewhere near it“, but the form is so difficult that it can correctly connect details not at once. It in power to children of 6 - 7 years.pieces are so similar
In the most difficult cases and so easily connect with each other that it is possible to put incorrectly the picture and to notice it, only if to be very attentive.
the Developing value of puzzles. Many people note relaxation effect of this puzzle. Adults there are not less children if it is no more, like to be engaged in drawing up pictures; can collect for weeks the puzzles consisting of thousands of details which “conduct“ a hand of the person, prompting the decision. Such collecting does not demand the cogitative tension and creative efforts.
puzzles can make Similar impact also on children. Often parents and tutors of kindergartens use game of the child with them as an opportunity to occupy him: while the kid sits quietly, quietly, him it is not visible and is not heard, it is possible to go about the own business. As well as in a case with adults, this occupation allows to remove excessive excitement therefore also the sedative in work with excessively mobile or just overexcited children, and also with children uneasy is good to use it as weakening, excessively disturbing. However children constraining, closed, unsociable often use collecting of puzzles as a peculiar leaving from world around. Such children can be seen in kindergartens: usually they in absolute loneliness sit where - nibud in a corner and nearly collect by hours these puzzles, automatically selecting details. Of course, such children need to be entered into a circle of peers, providing them full communication. For example, by means of the same puzzles: to arrange collective drawing up the picture. >
But it is important to p to note
that in order that puzzles really had the developing value for children, participation of the adult is necessary. Any toy to the child is presented by the adult, he opens its essence and all possible ways of game with it. The child who remains in private with a box of puzzles, most likely, will reduce game to mechanical selection of details of the picture.
the Developing problem of this game consists in formation of images and representations of the child. The adult`s task - to help the child to keep the collected image in consciousness. That puzzles promoted development of thinking, the adult has to focus attention on a picture plot, i.e. on what is collected by the child, but not on a frame or a form of pieces. With small children it is possible to think out stories and fairy tales according to pictures which are told in process of their drawing up. For example, displaying the picture with the image of the wood and its inhabitants, it is possible to argue with the child as follows: “Who is drawn on this piece? Birdie. What at it in a beak? Branch. And what the birdie does? Flies. Why to it branch? To construct a nest“, etc. Such reasonings will help the child not to get stuck on details, and to include them in the complete picture.Buying by
compound pictures, it is necessary to be guided first of all by the following parameters: quantity of details (which for preschool children should not exceed several tens), their approximate size and a form of edges, the image on the picture and on a separate piece. To consider all necessary characteristics, it is possible to address the special table. It is given below.
|of Age ()||of Couple - meters the Look structure - ny pictures||of of Kolya - a chestvo of details *||of the Example - the ny sizes (cm)||of of Edge of details||of of Izobr - a zheniye on a piece||of of Izobr - a zheniye on the whole picture|
|of 2 - 3||Inserts||3 - 7||Not less than 4||Equal||of Simetrichnye||the Separate subject or a simple plot < / small>|
|of of Sootvetst - vuyushchy to the image||the Separate image on a piece (a saucer, a cover etc.)|
|of Cutting pictures||2 - 6||Same||Equal||Zerkal - Nov in relation to a sovoy half||the Separate symmetric subject|
|of 3 - 4||of Vkladisha||To 10||Same|| Equal |
of Sootvetst - vuyushchy to the image
|the Separate image on a piece||the Separate subject or a simple plot|
|of Cutting pictures||4 - 8||Same||Equal||Mirror in relation to a sovy half||the Separate subject or a simple plot|
|of Cubes||4 - 9||Same||Part fromobrazheniye||the Separate subject or a simple plot|
|of 4 - 5||Cubes||Same||Same||Part of the image||the Separate subject or a simple plot|
|of Cutting pictures||8 - 15||Same||Equal||the Separate image (berry on a bush, a birdie, etc.)||Plot|
|of Puzzles||4 - 20||Same||Curve||Separate image||Separate subject or simple plot|
|of 5 - 6||Cubes||9 - 15||Not less than 3||Part of the image||Plot|
|of Cutting pictures||10 - 20||Same||Equal||Separate image or part of some image (fragment of a meadow, house, etc.)||Plot|
|of Puzzles||15 - 40||Same||Curve||Separate image or part of some image||Plot|
|of 6 - 7||Cubes||9 - 25||Same||Part of the image||Intricate plot|
|of Cutting pictures||15 - 30||Same||Equal||B the main - part of the image||the Intricate plot|
|of Puzzles||20 - 60||Not less than 2||Curve||Same||the Intricate plot|