Herbarium for the baby of
Which of inquisitive kids does not like to collect a bouquet of wild flowers during walk? Flowers will stay couple of days in a vase and fade, causing chagrin of the young naturalist, and is frequent also tears. But there is simple exit from a similar situation. If to dry plants, they will be stored very long and to please the kid with the cheerful paints. It is about a herbarium.Collecting by
plants, the child remembers their names and how they look. Some plants are so similar among themselves what to distinguish one from another not easy. Therefore, the kid develops attention and observation. Drying up plants, the young botanist learns to carry out certain rules, to observe sequence of actions. Registration of a herbarium will demand from the kid of accuracy and concentration, dry plants very fragile. Besides, the child will learn to work with reference books, to expand knowledge of world around. Also information on properties of these or those plants, their advantage for the person and animals is useful, that there are poisonous plants with which it is necessary to handle very with care. Collecting with the kid of a plant and making out a herbarium, you have a unique opportunity again to plunge into the childhood, will rediscover for yourself the amazing world which we for some reason cease to notice, we hardly become adults. Let`s try?
So what is a herbarium? Speaking to official language, a herbarium (from Latin herba - a grass, a plant) - the botanical collection of the collected and dried plants issued and supplied with labels, intended for scientific work. Of course, we will not approach collecting a herbarium so strictly and officially. We will bring an element of entertainment and creativity in this occupation.we Equip with
Before starting collecting plants, it is necessary to prepare for this purpose simple, but very useful devices. It is, first of all, the gerbarny folder. It is absolutely simple to make it. Two leaves of a cardboard of the A3 format will be necessary for you. They are put together and made in opening corners. In openings thick laces or a band are passed. If laces to tighten and stick, we will receive a temporary press for collected plants. In the folder put old newspapers. We will accurately put the plants intended for a collection between newspapers in the straightened look. So you will be able to carry them to the house safely. It is possible to put a paper label where its name, the place and time of assembly will be written to each plant. If it is possible to attract the father in allies, the gerbarny folder can be made of plywood: it will turn out more dense and more reliable. It is necessary to grind only properly lateral surfaces of plywood that the kid did not wound a hand about uneven edges.to
For excavation of plants need a small shovel or children`s sovochek (not plastic, but metal). They with success will be replaced by a strong spoon. Still it is necessary to stock up with a pack of paper of a small format and the handle: they will be useful to you for drawing up temporary labels to plants. Well and of course, do not forget the atlas - determinant of the plants which are found in your district. The few parents can brag of good knowledge of buttercups - florets and the other green friends growing under legs. But in it there is nothing terrible. The good book will come to the rescue of you. And after such botanical occupations with the kid you without effort will be able to distinguish soon plants which seemed to you as like as two peas earlier. The main thing - that images of plants in the book were well traced, and texts are written in language available to the child.
collected future herbariumby
For collecting plants not obligatory to allocate special time at all. These can diversify usual walk; the main thing - that day was dry. Damp from a rain or dew of a plant do not suit for a herbarium: they long dry and can deteriorate. Going to walk, choose every time the new place: park, the wood, a meadow, the river bank, the waste ground near the house. Each plant often grows only in a certain district. In the wood and near the river you will meet absolutely different representatives of flora.to Begin to collect by
a herbarium better from the simply, plants known to the child: camomiles, plantain, herd grass, clover, etc. Never break single plants, and choose places of their big congestion. Thus you do not do much harm to this look. Consider a plant together with the kid: what leaves, flowers at it where grows, loves a shadow or the sun, the damp or dry soil, grows everywhere or only in a certain place. Then choose a small healthy plant and accurately dig out it together with a root. Carefully shake off the earth from roots and put a plant in the gerbarny folder. It is better to take two identical plants: one for a herbarium, another - spare. Houses, after walk, at once take out plants from the folder and prepare them for drying, otherwise they will begin to dry up, and then it will be already difficult to give them the necessary look.
we Dry plants
In order that our herbarium turned out beautiful and remained for a long time, it is important to dry up collected plants properly. There are two ways of drying: one - correct, but long, another - fast, but unreliable.we Will begin
with the first. Botanists usually use it in order that plants did not lose the natural color and the invoice. Take the old newspaper, open it and lay inside a plant, having accurately straightened leaves, flowers, a stalk. Try to give to a plant a natural look. Some leaves can be unbent specially that the lower party was visible: at many plants it is in a different way painted and has omission. It is not necessary to tear off leaves which seemed to you ugly: the plant has to look as it grew on a meadow or a bed. Do similar operation with each collected plant, putting it in the separate newspaper. Such case from the newspaper is called “shirt“. Now put newspapers one on another, between them lay on several sheets of a newsprint or tissues for moisture absorption. From above press down a construction something heavy, for example several big books. To dry herbs and flowers there will be about two weeks. Only do not forget each 2 - 3 days to shift them new tissues, otherwise plants can decay.“ Shirts“ do not need to be changed.If you do not want to potter and wait for
so long, it is possible to dry up plants by means of the hot iron. And if the kid is able independently to cope with the first way of drying (and need to regularly change paper also will teach him responsibility), then in the second case it will hardly work well. In total - the hot iron - a toy for adults. So, to manage with green friends in the most sparing way, you do not hurry to dry up a plant at once, repeatedly passable on it the iron. Wrap it in napkins and newspapers as it was told above, put on an ironing table and 1 - 2 time iron. Postpone a herbarium for several hours, then iron again. Repeat procedure 3 - 4 times before full drying of a plant. You watch that the iron was not too hot, otherwise the plant can burn down and lose a natural color - to turn yellow. The most essential lack of this method of drying is that leaflets become smooth and lose the natural pattern and hairiness.
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the Interesting facts
Give to the kid the chance to issue a herbarium on the taste. Perhaps, he will want to paint a beautiful framework or to make them of natural material (leaves and petals of plants). Or to draw a suitable background for each plant - a meadow, the wood, a bed. Together with the child find information on plants from your collection: where grows when blossoms and fructifies how many years live. Now such set of various reference and encyclopedic books is issued what to make it will not make special work. And here ability to work with such literature - very valuable skill which by all means is useful to the child in the future.Practically about each plant can find
the entertaining facts. It will be interesting to kid to learn, for example, that a plantain the American Indians called “a trace of the white person“. And all because white colonialists delivered to America seeds of this plant on the footwear. And the zheltenky primrose mother - and - the stepmother received the I name from - for different colourings of the lower and top party of leaves. From above a leaf dark, smooth and cold - the stepmother, and from below it light, warm, trimmed soft hairs - mother. Names of some plants speak for themselves, and it is very useful to reflect why chistotet or, say, a shepherd`s bag received such amusing names. Juice of a chistotel is similar to “brilliant green“. And if to grease with it small ssadinka and wounds, they very quickly begin to live. From here and the name - chistotet. And if to look narrowly more attentively at a shepherd`s bag, it is possible to notice the leaflets similar to hearts or tiny handbags of shepherds.Many plants are used by
in a national economy or in medicine. About it it is possible to talk to the kid too. So, for example, doctors in Russia called a St. John`s Wort “a grass from 99 diseases“ and spoke:“ As it is impossible to bake bread without flour, so it is impossible to treat without St. John`s Wort many diseases“. Some wild plants can be eaten. From a prickly nettle tasty and useful salad turns out. And from yellow dandelions cook jam. Many herbs or their seeds in a dried look act as seasonings: fennel, basil, mint, coriander, mustard. All interesting that will manage to be found about plants, can be written down or printed and added to your collection.the legend and of weeds Is interesting by
to a sporysha which grows everywhere literally under legs. In the people it was called toptun - a grass for amazing resistance to trampling. And the old sorcerer who very much wanted to annoy people allocated sporysh with such stability. Once the sorcerer in mountains of a grass collected, was tired and sat down to have a rest. Looks - the small green grass rises from the valley. The sorcerer began to ask her: “Where you head?“ The grass answers:“ At all from people there is no life. Meadows are plowed up, from everywhere I am expelled. Here also I decided to go to mountains to disturb and that nobody disturbed me“. The sorcerer back persuaded a quick grass to return and allocated it with special characteristics. Now what the person did, it was impossible to him to cope with a stubborn grass in any way. He and legs trampled down it, and uprooted, and by cars weeded, and it both grew, and grows. The person sporysh to himself on advantage decided to adapt. Also it turned out that this grass and treats for diseases, and for pets a useful forage. Here and the sorcerer miscalculated: instead of the evil gave to the person of the kind assistant. > still it is useful for p to collect by
A verses on flowers and trees, and the best of them - to learn by heart.
- Hey, camomiles.
Blue - a blue cornflower.
So, considering this or that plant from the different points of view, the baby will comprehensively learn to approach any question; it will wake its research interest.
to you to dry plants between pages of books: plants dry badly, and books spoil. The exception is made by thin flower petals. They can be dried in old, unnecessary books.
How to issue an album?
of Ways of registration of our treasure the great variety exists. At first how it becomes by rules. On a leaf of the A3 format the dried-up plant is put and accurately pasted by thin stripes of white paper or the thread - mi in several places is sewn. Near seeds in a bag and a label where the name of a sort and species of a plant in the Russian and Latin languages, the place and time of assembly is written are placed. Herbariums are laid by pergament sheets and gather in the folder - a folder. But, as you with the kid do not have need to prepare collections for scientific conference or the museum, it is possible to issue them and differently.for this purpose take
dense album sheets, place on them plants and paste thin strips of paper or sew a thread. Small plants will be located on a leaf together with a root, and big place fragments: part of a stalk, root, leaf, flower. Nearby it is possible to attach a bag of seeds. At herbs and flowers with a long stalk (for example, at cereals) to a zasushka do not cut off this stalk, and several times bend that acute angles turned out. It is quite good to paste the picture or the photo of a plant entirely, especially if this tree or a bush nearby. It can be found in the encyclopedia or the textbook of botany and to draw (excellent creative work!), to unpack from the Internet (and at the same time and we will learn to work at the computer!) or to photograph during walk (we develop observation and we master photoequipment!). Do not forget to write the name of a plant in Russian and in Latin (and why and is not present?) and to specify time and the place of assembly (a meadow, the wood, the field, the river bank, the mountains of the Crimea, a botanical garden, etc.) . If you teach the kid to read by some technique, make, for example, the large red signature (across Doman) or with allocation of warehouses (according to Zaytsev). It will be interesting to child to read such “live“ book moreover and made the and mother`s hands.
we place our sheets in files Now, and files - in the folder. So it is convenient to watch, fill up a collection with new exhibits, and it is quite reliably protected. At desire it is possible to pull out easily the picture from the file, to consider a plant closer, to touch a finger leaves and a stalk. Smooth they or rough, with hairs or without? Such occupations develop both observation, and tactile sense. For bigger safety sheets with the dried plants can be laminated. They will become brighter, but then there will be any more no opportunity to learn what they to the touch. And still it is possible to place gerbarny sheets in magnetic photo albums (where photos nestle the magnetized transparent film). And it is convenient to store, and it is possible to pull out easily if necessary.
we Bring a variety
Of course, it is possible to put all dried plants in one folder. But it is far more interesting to collect several different collections. It can be a stake lecture of weeds, houseplants or plants from a grandmother`s kitchen garden. It is possible to issue separately forest plants or plants growing on a meadow. It is possible to collect a collection of petals of cultivated flowers or leaves of trees and bushes, having allocated in separate group, say, fruit-trees. And Indian summer - the most suitable time for collecting a collection of autumn leaves. Going to have a rest to the sea or traveling to the distant countries, do not forget and to bring several exotic plants and leaves of trees from there. Gradually at the kid the remarkable collection which will become a subject of special pride will gather.can do to
beautiful hand-made articles Of the dried plants. Petals of various flowers, flowers and multi-colored autumn leaves are especially good for this purpose. It has no relation to a herbarium, but it is possible to collect material for future hand-made articles in parallel with a collection of plants. And then in the rainy fall and in the cold winter at you with the kid interesting occupation will - do beautiful cards, bright pictures and to remember warm summer.
What it is possible to make of the dried plants? For example, a card as a gift to the grandmother, ornament on a wall in the form of a heart or a bookmark for the book. For this purpose it is necessary to cut out a basis for future work from a color cardboard. Let the kid will spread out the dried flowers and leaves that beautiful patterns turned out on a basis. Now it is necessary to drip a glue droplet on the back party of each flower or a leaflet and to press them to paper in the necessary situation. When glue dries, wrap up the picture a transparent film or laminate. Beauty is ready! p>
Beautiful pictures turn out from autumn leaves. For hand-made articles they can be dried also the iron. Suggest the kid to think up compositions from multi-colored leaflets: flowers, animal, various patterns and even whole fantastic cities. It is possible to try to paint a picture by means of prints of leaves. Collect several leaves of different trees with the kid. Apply an even layer of paint on the lower part of a leaf (where veins act). Accurately put a leaf on paper the painted party down, from above press a construction a napkin. Now it is possible to clean a napkin and a leaf, and on paper there will be a nice print. For autumn - a picture make red, yellow, green and orange prints of leaves of different trees on paper. It is possible to arrive and differently. On a clean sheet of paper put several leaves, it is better with relief edges (a maple, an oak), and then dip an old toothbrush in liquid paint and, running a finger over shchetinka, splash from above paper. Operation can be repeated, using paints of different flowers. We clean leaves, we receive white silhouettes against specks.can make by
a self-made lotto Of the dried-up plants. It will be far more interesting and more useful to play them, than purchased. Line sheets of a white cardboard on six equal parts. In each rectangle paste on one leaflet from a tree, a small plant or a flower. 1akikh big cards has to be not less than six. From above fit them a transparent film, paste over with an adhesive tape or laminate. Now it is necessary to make small cards with the same plants, as on big cards. When the lotto is ready, it is possible to start game. Rules of this game are known to all. The leader shows a small card, and players look for the same plant on the big. Who has it, takes away a card to itself. The one who will quicker close the pictures small cards wins. Game will be twice more interesting if to play it not only with mother, and and with the father. And if only the father is not a professional biologist, then be sure, the kid easily will beat him. He already so fine understands plants!
of games and occupations Cheerful and interesting to you!