Way to the country of books. From the listener - to the reader of
of Children who do not love when they read to them does not happen. But why then one children, having learned to read, continue communication so pleasant to mother`s heart with the book, and others - are not present? How to help the child to fall in love with books? What it is possible to make that reading became for it requirement, it gave pleasure? The answer is unambiguous: future reader needs to be brought up when he only starts walking when he learns the world when he endures the first surprise from contact with surrounding.Conditionally in the course of formation of the reader can allocate to
the following types of reading: mediated (reading to the child aloud), independent (reading the child without the aid of the adult) and reading - creativity (the reading constructed as process of creative development of the perceived work). But you should not consider the types of reading allocated with us as stages of formation of the reader, they do not follow one after another in strict temporary sequence, and gradually arising in life of the kid, as if supplement each other, become pages of his reader`s biography.
the First acquaintance to the book
the First type of reading with which the child gets acquainted, - the mediated reading. But this type of reading does not lose the value and when the child begins to read and when he already learned to read rather fluently. Therefore our recommendations of reading aloud will be useful also to those who only begin to read books to the kid, and those who already acquainted the child with the alphabet, and that whose offspring already improves own relations with the book.
the Leading role belongs to the reader, that is the adult, and the child acts as the listener. It gives the chance to the adult to control reading process: to observe a rhythm, to vary the text (for example, to insert a name of the child into verses on children), making it more available and clear; to read brightly and expressively; to monitor reaction of the child. Reading to the child aloud - a difficult task. It is impossible to say monotonously the text, it it is necessary to beat, not to hurry, to create by voice images of heroes of work.Reading aloud differs in
from independent reading the adult a little - delightful travel to the country of literary images, taking place in silence and the tranquility demanding loneliness and full immersion to the world of imaginations. The kid does not sit minutes in place, he constantly asks some questions, quickly distracts. The adult needs to be ready to react to the questions which suddenly arose on the text course, comments, and also such manifestations of the relation to read as crying, laughter, a protest against the course of events stated in the text.
Such reading first of all is a communication (and it is necessary to remind of it only to adults: for children it is already indisputable truth). It is your conversation with the kid, it is dialogue with the author of work. And therefore you should not refuse joint reading aloud when the child learned to read independently: continue to read to it, read in turn, attentively listen as he reads, involve in reading aloud other family members.
Reading aloud - the most important construction tool of relationship of the child and adult, but that it becomes only when performing a number of conditions.
First - it is necessary not only to reproduce the text, i.e. to say it aloud, but also to try to comprehend it, to understand. And for the adult this task forks: he finds something special in the read text, interprets it from height of own life experience and at the same time tries to create a situation of understanding or an emotional response for the child listening to it.
the Great storyteller G. - H. Andersen wrote about this phenomenon of perception of children`s literature by adults: “... I precisely decided to write fairy tales! Now I tell from the head, I am enough idea for adults - and I tell for children, remembering that the father and mother sometimes too listen and they need to give I write for reflections!“ The joint perception of work of fiction, its judgment inevitably have to develop into discussion of read: reading the fairy tale pushes us on reasonings on the good and evil, acquaintance to poetic works sets thinking on unlimited opportunities of language in transfer of the most different meanings and emotions...
Important is also how there will be a literature circle for the mediated reading: what books we choose for our kids as far as they are various on subject, on registration, on a genre or mood. It is impossible to assume that books were perceived only as entertainment or only as training. The world of fiction is very rich and multi-color, in it there is a place to both serious conversation, and cheerful game (today we will read the sad fairy tale “Little Mermaid“, and tomorrow we will find time for naughty “Bad advice“).
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Culture of reading - it is important!
during the mediated reading the child studies at the adult to the relation to the book. The kid together with mother pays attention to a book cover where its name and a name of the author is reported (so often we complain then that children read, without paying attention to the name of work, without remembering a surname of the author), mother teaches it to examine pictures, pays attention of the beginning bibliophile that they were created by the artist (and some children`s writers did illustrations to the works, for example, E. Charushin was not only the author of fine works about the world of wildlife, but also the bright painter - the animal painter). During this period of reading, joint with the adult, at the child the foundation of culture of reading is laid: careful attitude to the book, ability to organize the place for reading, hygiene of this process (lighting, distance from the book to eyes, a pose when reading). >
there Came the long-awaited moment - your child learned to read. At first it were only signs on the street and credits on the screen of the TV or on the computer monitor (we will talk about them a bit later), and now it is already absolutely adult little man who it is comprehended “tycht a finger in the book“. It is very good! So, we approached the following type of reading - independent. Actually independent reading will become not soon, and at the beginning a lot of things depend on the adult: from his ability to harmoniously combine attention and interest in the first reader`s experiences of the child with the former habitual mediated reading aloud. Let the kid himself define how many he is read by mother (the father the grandmother, elder sister or the brother) and how many he will read. The first attempts to read surely have to be followed by gradual formation of skill of writing of letters, their drawing. >
For the young reader it is still more important to p to get acquainted with letters, his own reading has in many respects rather mechanical character: he more is interested in purely technical aspect of business - as from letters words turn out. Therefore the expressive party of reading fiction (ability to understand the text, to pay attention to its art features) still long time will remain under the authority of the adult.
One more important party of a question of formation of independent reading - definition of a circle of reading the child beginning to read. When the book is read by the adult, the questions arising at the kid on the course of reading are resolved at once thanks to presence of the adult who can answer or explain on them something unclear. And how to pick up books which will be interesting and clear 4 - 5 - 6 - to the summer child? At first your young bibliophile will re-read books already famous to it - it should not interfere, children very often re-read familiar books, just thumb through them. Let it do not disturb mother: the kid did not stop in development, he just thus reduces stress, communicating with old friends. During formation of independent reading there is very actual a statement:“ The book - the best gift“. Present to the kid several new books (even if your children`s library, in your opinion, does not need updating), choosing for this purpose the small stories or fairy tales of the Russian writers (such works to the beginning reader will be simpler to master) illustrated scientifically - popular editions about world around (it will satisfy aspiration of the child to obtain from the book information interesting him, peculiar to his age), the amusing developing books - toys (for children of this age game - the main way of knowledge and development) with riddles, labyrinths, rebuses. During formation of independent reading the child it is very important to create additional conditions for his speech development as his speech which was recently only oral got one more form of an existing now - written. With it you will be helped by the most different editions containing various rebuses, verbal problems and games.As needs long to be read to
Some argue so: if learned to read, let reads. It is incorrect. Just beginning to read (to sight-read, but not to tell) ag - to the kid, you already train him for difficult activity ~ for independent reading (and at the same time and for the letter) which cornerstone the perception of written language is.
The matter is that the oral (colloquial) and written (book) speech seriously [differ. Reading became swollen expressively, with the correct intonation, emotionally, you train the child for how he will learn to build the phrase, intonatsionno to make out it. The your own slow reading will “be more correct“ in this sense, the it is more than chances, as the kid will have no problems at first to learn to read expressively, and then and it is correct to put a zn - f ki punctuations (they reflect intonation in the letter), to write the terminations of words (so he will not swallow of them when reading) etc. For this reason you should not stop reading aloud already it would seem to well reading child. Read with it in turn, arrange family readings - do not deprive of it an opportunity to develop and do not forget that it is additional minutes of happy communication with the kid.
I some more councils how to maintain interest in independent reading.
- Help the kid to learn to be guided with the book sea: teach to choose books on shelves of your library, tell about how books what books you prefer to read and other family members as there was your library are located on them. It is possible for
- (and it is necessary) to conduct for the kid tour in regional children`s library where you with pleasure will be helped by her workers. Of course, first of all you will pay attention of the kid to those books that will be interesting and clear to it, can byt, will acquaint with the loved children`s works, tell what book you happened to read for the first time independently. do not forget
- also about authors of books, about illustrators. Pay attention to the one who wrote the book, tell the child about children`s writers.
Steps to creativityto
the Last type of reading allocated with us reading creative which is the main development tool of the child will become li>: developments of his speech, imagination, ability to perception of fiction. It is not enough to read to the child of the book or to create conditions for formation of a circle of its independent reading. It is important to prepare the kid for a meeting with the world of fiction - the world of fiction, the imagination embodied in verbal images. How to make so that the stiffened sounds of the poem “came to life“ before eyes when reading? Answer one: it is necessary to teach his creativity the reader. It is necessary to begin development of such creative abilities with the period of the mediated reading and not to stop these exercises and during formation independent. So, with what to begin?
of the Picture in the book... For the little reader (more precisely - the listener as it is about the baby, not able to read yet) the picture in the book - an indispensable condition: it is a visual support for perception of the verbal image heard by it. It is important to pay attention of the kid not only to the one who is represented on the picture, but also to details, to a color scheme of an illustration (it concerns children is more senior - 4 - 5 years), to how the artist reports mood of the hero (for example, sad Alyonushka or the scared hare). Retelling a work fragment according to the picture, the kid develops the speech and learns to recreate a verbal image on the basis of visual. And according to the picture it is possible and to dream up. But the most interesting is to create own creations on paper, from plasticine, natural materials and to illustrate them a work of art. Developing interest in art creativity at the child, we promote development of his imagination, ability to form a plan and to find a form for its embodiment, ability to find the independent solution of the image embodied by it in paints or plasticine.the Creative relation to process of reading has to be formed by
also at the intonational level. Offering the child various options of reading of the same poem he is (cheerful, thoughtful, indignant), involving it in this game of intonations, we teach it to perceive the intonational, emotional party of artistic speech without what, for example, full reading lyrics is impossible. It is very important to keep and develop this ability of the child to perceive various shades of intonational coloring of the speech, to teach it to transfer by voice various emotions. You remember our humourous catchphrases and poteshka which mothers and grandmothers actively use to calm or distract the kid? The baby does not understand words yet, but already reacts to intonation. Also the kid to whom several months were executed perceives also recitation - even not nurseries at all: he calms down and listens, listening to the rhythmic speech.
Suggesting the kid “to play“ some fairy tale, we develop the abilities connected with creative judgment and the drama embodiment of the text. It is possible to dramatize a work of art, using for this purpose dolls and a toy (it for small - those who need a visual basis), and it is possible only by voice (reading “on roles“). With children is more senior it makes sense to try to put pass - a performance. Both doll statement, and the role embodiment by the child have to be based in due form theater: discussion of stage settings (who where costs where goes as works), development of scenery and suits, work on creation of character of the hero - as he says how he goes as looks. This type of creativity - one of the most difficult, but also one of the most attractive to children as game is its cornerstone. Complexity is that the child has still very brief experience of supervision of human relationship, it is very difficult to it to build space of the played fairy tale. But it should be noted that the game “in theater“ in many respects just and is aimed at the development of these abilities in the kid.Reader`s creativity is formed by
not only during reading books. The rich imagination “gathers“ gradually from the most different impressions which remain with the little man from walks in the wood, from visits of theater or an exhibition, games on the street and at home, supervision over animals, communication with people around, experiences...
the Writer creates the world by power of imagination, counting on further coauthorship of the reader. The world of the small child is similar to such world of the imagination, the fairy tale - it is necessary only to try to see it and to hear: to see how two trees standing near as the pan is similar to the astronaut`s helmet “are whispered“ to hear the story told by an old suitcase or a streamlet song. Dream and compose, you study it at the great storyteller G. - H. Andersen and you teach it the children.
the Creativity cast by reading can be any. The main thing - that for that time while you read books to the child, it created steady interest in such game “based on“ of the read book. It is important then when he begins to read witham to maintain this interest in drawing, inventing, playing and imagination because reading fiction has to be first of all pleasure.
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What to do if the kid does not want to read?
to draw attention unloving to read the child, use simple receptions: read with it the book, and then leave it opened and leave the room. But be tactful and attentive to the young reader: you do not press, do not force to read, do not insist on reading more “difficult“ books as it seems to you, more corresponding to age of your child if he still independently reads only absolutely “children`s“ books.
Sometimes the reasons preventing the child to begin to read have psychological character: at the child a peculiar barrier against reading which the kid is not able to overcome yet was created. Or perhaps your kid has other causes of failure from reading: it is difficult to it to read from - for sight violations, he reads the book in which to it many unknown words occur (sometimes such misunderstood word enough one that the child stopped reading), it is difficult to baby to present about what he reads.