Education in French
French tutors... Connect very extensive associations which, of course, reached about one today even from the nineteenth century with this concept. The Russian noblemen trusted French tutors the children, hoping to see in own child refinement of taste, refinement of manners, ability to conduct conversation in combination with extensive knowledge - let gradually, but about everything. What stands behind this beautiful, but in many respects in a literary way as far as it corresponds to reality?
the Working or unemployed mother?House education in France popularity does not enjoy
. Most of Frenchwomen does not stay at home with children, they prefer to work and do it for many reasons.
In - the first, life in France very expensive and to provide the child, mother very much early after his birth comes to work. The child care leave - six weeks to and ten weeks after the birth of the kid - is provided to the woman who at least before childbirth worked two years at the enterprise.
In - the second, the French mothers are afraid that during the compelled idle time in work they will lose qualification and then will not be able to settle anywhere.In addition most of the French mothers are sure by
that early socialization of the kid - his placement to collective, training in communication with other people - will do only good because in collective the child develops much better, there for the company with friends he begins to play, read, draw; besides, he early understands what is discipline, masters necessary skills in life quicker: how to handle tableware how independently to put on and undress, tie laces, to use a toilet etc. The French children so naturally perceive that their mothers work that the unemployed woman can quite hear a question from the child: “Mother, you do not work because it is sick?“
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Interesting household detail: many state kindergartens and the leisure centers of children for which mothers do not work are not allowed to the dining room and one have to go to have dinner home. It is very inconvenient for the child who has no opportunity to have dinner together with the friends and has to hurry very much to manage to run home and back.
the French mother does not come to work most often when in a family the second child and especially appears when the third is born. Then the woman cares for kids herself. Occupations with kids of the French mothers a little what differ from occupations with kids of the Russian women: they together with the child examine pictures in books, show objects and explain how they are called and for what serve, play cubes, collect pyramids, watch animated films.the Help of grandmothers and grandfathers is, as a rule, reduced by
to the fact that they can sometimes take a walk with the kid, bring it to a circle or section. By the way, there is a lot of circles for children in France, as well as various associations which are engaged with kids, and it costs rather not much.As house education in connection with employment of parents is not really actual
, in France the developed education system, including a preschool stage is sufficient.
the French education system
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Corporal punishments of children were always a huge rarity in France. Usually guilty were punished, depriving of it some entertainment or a delicacy. Cancellation of punishment or monetary encouragement was considered as an award. Each child had the moneybox where the kid put the money presented to him.
the Educational system of modern France consists of four blocks: initial, average and senior schools, the last step are a higher school (university). Along with free public educational institutions which are controlled by the state in France there are also private educational institutions which, as a rule, are under authority of the non-state or religious organizations and are paid. Conditions of stay both in state, and in private institutions often depend on that, where exactly they are located, small France is divided into 22 regions and 96 departments. Departments are in turn subdivided into 327 districts, 3828 cantons and 36 551 communes therefore in each individual case it is necessary to address in local authorities or directly directors of a day nursery, kindergartens and schools. Communes are units of local management which are directed by municipal council (it is chosen by direct vote) and the mayor who is elected by members of this municipal council. Adoption of the local budget, determination of the size of local taxes, the solution of various problems in a commune belongs to duties of council.
Preschool education: from chest age >
In France, as well as in the majority of the countries, it is considered h2 that before sending the child to school, it needs to be prepared for it at first. This preparation is carried out in day nursery and kindergartens.the Modern French day nursery is ready to accept
for education of the children who hardly reached three-months age. The tradition to give the kid on education nearly since its birth exists in France for a long time. From two-week age of the child could define in special institutions for babies, so-called cr é che (day nursery) where the child spent the whole day till the evening, did not come for it parents so far. The kid visited a day nursery too approximately to two - three years. Now in French “cr é che“ take children of absolutely different age, everything depends on conditions of a concrete day nursery. The French state day nursery - cr é che collective are open, as a rule, Monday through Friday.Household issues in a day nursery are resolved by
as follows. For the least pupils - babies - parents have to bring every day special milk or mix with which nurses and tutors will feed the kid. Equalization is not allowed here as the doctor chooses food for such remains individually for each child.Krom of milk or mix parents have to provide with
to the kid necessary quantity of diapers per day though in some day nursery diapers even give out.with
of Children in a day nursery so many once a day how many it is necessary for their age feed, the smallest receive milk or mix each 2 - 3 hours, depending on the individual schedule to which tutors steadily adhere. Kids of a year receive in a day nursery food twice: at about noon - a lunch, at four o`clock in the evening - an afternoon snack, and houses have breakfast and have supper. In many cr é che collective is the kitchen so food kids receive the freshest, just prepared - porridges, mashed potatoes, fruit. Kids too at that time in what they got used sleep, nobody will begin to put the child to bed if he got used to be awake at this time.
it is strictly forbidden to Abuse, shout at little pupils, treat kids very tenderly and warmly. Tutors do not allow kids to cry. If the child was upset, he will be taken on handles, consoled, distracted some interesting occupation. Despite it, the attitude towards discipline very serious, the French children from the cradle acquire that it is bad to fight, it is impossible to be capricious, it is necessary to obey seniors and to fulfill requirements of tutors.with
Usually in group of 10 - 18 children 4 tutors work at once - they play with kids the developing games, study with them songs, read fairy tales, practise a molding, music and drawing.
In a cold season in some day nursery are cancelled by walks with children, usually it occurs at the end of October. Places for walks in a day nursery are equipped by all necessary that kids could run about, rock in plenty on a swing, drive from a hill, play.
Besides, the small child it is possible to arrange on a half of day in a day nursery - a garden which is called in France halte - garderie. It is government institution. The kid will spend only several hours two there - three times a week or every day (it depends on a concrete garden). Fee of halte - garderie depends on a financial position of a family. The sum is determined by the special commission on the basis of the documents on the income submitted by a family.
Day nursery or nurse?
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Small nuance: the right to send the child to the state day nursery is had only a family where both parents work or study, and this fact needs to be confirmed with the special reference or studies. It is considered that if one of parents of the child does not work and does not study, then he also has to sit with the kid. If one of parents does not work, but is in job search, the child can be accepted in a day nursery for three months. On the termination of this term the situation has to be reconsidered. If the parent during this time could not find work and will be able to document that actively is engaged in its searches (the distributed summaries, answers of employers, etc.) the term of stay of the kid in a day nursery can be prolonged.
that is simple to Receive the place in the state day nursery not so-. A time of the woman are forced to get in line, being on the sixth - the seventh month of pregnancy.
Along with the state day nursery exist also private, but it is necessary to pay very much for them.
Besides cr é che collective in France exist associations of nurses - cr é che familiale. Conditions of finding of the child at the nurse from cr é che familiale depend on rules of concrete association. Usually in group to one nurse take two or three kids. Parents have the right previously to communicate to potential nurses to choose the most suitable, to the look, and pleasant to them. In fee of the nurse from cr é che familiale enters two times food of the child as well as in a day nursery - a lunch and an afternoon snack. When the nurse goes on leave or the sick-list takes, other nurse from association replaces it.Some parents use
services of private nurses, their list can be received in the special organization which is called “Relais des assistantes maternelles“ or directly in the city hall. For work the nurse needs to have the license which she obtains after the termination of special courses. Usually such nurse looks after three - four children at home, at the same time children can not suit one another on age. Big minus is that if the nurse gets sick or is going on vacation, then to replace it there is nobody, and parents should think out various options to attach somewhere the kid if there is no opportunity to stay at home with it.
Kindergarten in French
To modern French kindergartens - “ecole maternelle“ is admitted kids aged from two till six years. Pupils are divided into three groups on age. In the first group the most small children till 4 years are engaged in age, their occupations represent various games. In the second group (till 5 years) besides games creative occupations are entered: drawing, a molding, besides, much attention is paid to communication of children with each other. The most senior children are learned to read, consider and write, preparing them for fast receipt in school. Often in kindergartens children for the whole day go hiking and arrange small picnic outdoors. Parents in these cases give to the child with themselves “dry ration“: chips, boiled eggs, sandwiches, lettuce leaves, cheese, fruit, juice and compotes.Training in ecole maternelle enjoys
wide popularity in France though is not obligatory.
After kindergarten, at the age of six years the child is admitted to elementary school and studies in it within five years. As well as in Russia, children at elementary French school have, as a rule, one teacher of all objects.at
Thus, having looked on education of little French from within, ordinary literary associations with refined and fashionable French education are possible will find actual content.