Motives of behavior of people on a workplace of
of People, performing work, is guided in the activity not by one motive, but multidirectional motives or a difficult chain of consistently connected motives. Let`s consider the main motives influencing behavior of the person on a workplace.
we Will consider the main motives influencing behavior of the person on a workplace.
- of Self-esteem . This requirement can be expressed as in a pursuit of recognition from people around in connection with well performed work, and in desire to be independent and free. It can be the cornerstone of aspiration to competence or to success in professional activity, and also aspirations to achieve the power or prestigious situation.
The fact that this requirement can be expressed differently, says that it is closely connected with the events endured in youth. This type of requirement is connected with how the feeling of independence at the child developed. How parents treated manifestation of this feeling - encouraged it, praised for it or, on the contrary, interfered with the inept guardianship or scolded, the child turns into the person, people around, either self-assured, or strongly dependent from opinion, and incapable to get down to business which success is not provided.
Anyway, the way of development of need for self-affirmation is connected with how the superior qualities - such as justice, solidarity, softness, self-esteem and respect for people around will be developed. This requirement finds also a way out in satisfaction of esthetic inquiries - in search of orderliness, beauty, balance.
Self-realization . According to Maslou, the congenital aspiration to development, inherent in each person, leads to the fact that he tries to apply and realize the inherited potential opportunities. It is about fundamental motivation which can be shown completely only at those who reached a certain level of self-esteem.
Need for approval . It is one of the most considerable requirements connected with culture. Crowe and Merlou found out that the people having high degree of need for approval are inclined to submit more actively to public and group standards, to study quicker when the corresponding approval is given for the correct performance than when such approval is absent; to experience difficulties, working independently because are afraid to cause disapproval of the administration.
Need for achievement . Why it seems that some people have strong desire to reach something while others are satisfied with mediocre results? Psychologists claim that the need for achievement develops at early age. Children whose parents of much reached in life learn to work hard and strive for success. The parents focused on achievement encourage the slightest signs of tendency of children to achievement.
David Makkelland made the significant contribution to studying of this requirement. He claimed that power of need for achievement depends on three factors: expectation of success, value of the received results (an award and encouragement), feelings of a personal responsibility for achievement. A special case of this requirement is the need for competence. Some people above all appreciate skill and competence. Having become managers, they also estimate subordinates in these parameters, being guided by own level, believing that all have to strive for high quality, conscientiousness, excellent knowledge of the business. It is difficult for them to get on with people, but it is even more difficult to operate the collective consisting of people who, perhaps, are guided absolutely by other values.
Motive of achievements . Though the need for the power was recognized long ago and already long time is discussed, research works in this area began to be carried out quite recently. Everything happened to motive of achievements on the contrary. Though its studying, unlike others, has no so long history, is known of it more as the set of researches was devoted to it. There is a number of the tests allowing to measure power of this motive. So, T. Elers`s test allowing to estimate power of motivation to achievement of the purpose and to success is effective.
Tendency to risk . The first difficulty arising in attempt to deal with tendency of the person to risk is connected with the fact that the concept “risk“ arose much later, than usually think.
Risk, and most often one of its aspects described by probability theory is rather recent formal invention which has no correlates in direct intellectual perception. Per se, the probability has to be considered rather as the invention, but not opening.
In Europe the word “risk“ meets already in medieval sources, but gains distribution only from the beginning of publishing, first of all in Italy and Spain. Generally it is documents from area of sea trade and legal documents.
- of Need for immediate feedback . The aspiration to moderate risk at people is closely connected with high need for achievements also desire to immediately receive feedback. The people focused on achievements seek for such work as work as the seller when their work is estimated often and by concrete criteria.
- Need for satisfaction from completion of work . People with high need for achievements consider that performance of a task in itself bears satisfaction. They do not wait for awards, do not dream to earn the corresponding material reward surely. A good example of this characteristic is the aspiration to money, but not for the usual reasons, it as desire to have money in itself or for acquisition of material benefits. People with high need for achievement consider money rather as a form of feedback or as an assessment of their work. If they have a choice between simple work with good payment and more difficult with low payment, they usually with other things being equal choose the last. It should be noted that the most part of aspects of this motive is still not clear and badly studied.
- Need for absorption by an objective . If people with high need for achievements set a task, they seek to devote completely themselves it to realization. They cannot stop or make work half and do not feel satisfied, will not make every effort yet. A good example often are athletes. They “people on the contrary“ - feel comfortable only under big loading. Such devotion to the business is often reflected in external manifestations of their personality that often negatively affects those who deal with them. People with high need for achievements are often perceived by others as unfriendly or as “lonely wolves“. They can be very quiet and seldom brag of the achievements. But they not always keep good relations with other people. Usually from such people great sellers turn out, but it is very rare - good sales managers.
- the Motive of accessory plays very important role in behavior of the person . Some scientists - behaviourists consider it as congenital requirement, referring to Mowgli`s effect, but also Hawthorne experiment showed the importance of motive of accessory in behavior of members of the organization.
- Motive of safety . Safety is a derivative factor from risk, but it is possible, and sometimes and it is convenient to consider it separately. Safety - strong impact on behavior of people. And though to simple motive of safety it was paid much attention, the role of difficult, subconscious motive of safety still demands deeper judgment. The RSK test of Schubert allows to estimate power of motive of safety.
- Motive of the status . Along with motive of safety the motive of the status, or prestige is especially inherent in dynamic society. The modern man of means is usually represented as the certain status seeking for achievement. Actually the status exists from the moment of emergence on Earth of the first two people.
as relative position which the person holds in group, the organization or society. According to this definition as soon as two persons meet, there is a status hierarchy even if both initially had an identical status. Symbols of the status of people tries to reflect only relative situation in status hierarchy. Determination of the status depends on the dominating cultural values and social roles. The factors defining the status usually have absolutely different value depending on values of concrete culture. In some cultures the person, the higher him the status is more senior. However in other cultures when the person reaches a certain age, its status begins to decrease.the Need for the power expresses to
- of natural tendency of people to dominate, keep everything under control, to exert impact on others, to hold authority with them. At different people this line is expressed differently. Jung considered that, considering a current of human life, we see how the destiny of one is caused mainly by objects of its interests while destiny of another - first of all his own internal life, his subjects. In extreme situations such people feel quite comfortably. But even more comfortably they feel at the high positions interfaced to heavy responsibility and the power.
before others and is studied relatively long ago. One of the first scientists - behaviourists was the main defender of motive of the power, And. Adler. He officially broke the close ties with S. Freud and formulated the theoretical provisions which are sharply contradicting the theory of psychoanalysis. Freud emphasized influence of last experience and unconscious sexual motivation, Adler replaced them with future and irresistible aspiration of the person to superiority and the power. For an explanation of need for the power - requirements to operate others or desires to be higher than others - Adler developed the concepts “inferiority complex“ and “compensation“. He considered that each small child has feeling of inferiority. When this feeling connects to what Adler called natural congenital need for superiority, together they in a complex begin to direct behavior of the person. Individual lifestyle can be characterized as aspiration to compensate feeling of inferiority, aspiration which is combined with congenital aspiration to the power.
Modern psychologists in the majority do not accept the doctrine that the need for the power is congenital and therefore dominating, but in recent years interest in it became aggravated again.
- of Motives of curiosity, activity and desire to manipulate . Psychologists the first noticed that animals with whom they experimented have congenital motive to research of objects, a manipulation them and even just to activity. It was especially fair concerning monkeys to whom created new, unfamiliar situations. Such supervision and assumptions concerning existence at monkeys of motives of curiosity, a manipulation and activity were confirmed experimentally later. In this case psychologists are absolutely sure that results of experiments with animals can be generalized also in relation to the person. For example, this motive is pronounced at children and is simply hidden by other motives at adults.
These motives often lead children to trouble, but their maintenance in process of a growing can be very useful. If these motives were suppressed or restrained, all society would become very inert that is fair also at the level of the organization. When to workers do not allow to follow motives of curiosity, desire to manipulate and activity, at them the motivation to work disappears.
- of Motive of attachment . The love, attachment represent very irregular shape of the general motive. Complexity is partially connected with the fact that in many cases the love has similarity to primary motives though in others it is more similar to secondary motives. In particular, the motive of attachment, on the one hand, closely is associated with primary sexual motive, and with another - with secondary motive of accessory. For this reason attachment is referred sometimes to all three categories of motives, and some psychologists do not recognize it as separate motive at all.
Attachment deserves special attention from - for the fact that its value constantly increases in the modern world. Apparently, there is a big element of truth in such expressions as “the love moves the world“ and “all age are obedient to love“.
- of Passionarity and creativity . The nature of activity of the person deeply is also comprehensively investigated by L. N. Gumilev.
Aspiration of the person to new, to change habitual, traditional, to “inertia violation“ L. N. Gumilev suggested to call a passionarity (from armor. passio - passion). Manifestation of creative, business, public activity is caused by the corresponding emotional states: enthusiasm, enthusiasm, enthusiasm, etc. Such traits of character of the person as courage, will, persistence, commitment are connected with a passionarity.
L. N. Gumilev emphasized that the passionarity as a special power condition of the person concerns not only to certain outstanding persons (politicians, scientists, artists, commanders etc.), but also to big collectives - ethnic and social groups, the population of the country. In a passional condition of mass of people are especially susceptible both to noble, and to the low purposes.