Food allergy at the baby of
Distribution of allergic reactions, first of all on food, did not avoid also newborn children at whom allergies, unfortunately, proceed often in more severe form, than at adults. Quite often mothers nursing the kid mistakenly consider that in that case the child is insured from an allergy. It`s not true because allergens can contain also in breast milk. How to identify allergy symptoms at the child and what measures to take in this case to parents?
of Substance, the starting allergic reactions, call allergens. Food allergy is caused by the proteins which are contained in foodstuff. Food allergens are capable to change the properties in the course of culinary processing, at the same time one lose allergenicity, and others, on the contrary, become more allergenic.
What mechanism of allergic reaction? In response to allergen in an organism immunoglobulins E which activate the cascade of the reactions leading to development of allergic symptoms are synthesized. Usually allergic reactions arise soon after the use in food of a product to which there is a hypersensibility, but sometimes the allergy happens slowed down, being shown only in several hours after the use of a product.
Symptoms of food allergy
So, food allergy is a condition of hypersensibility to food. It can be shown differently:
in the form of allergic damages of skin :
- various rash on a body,
- of reddening,
- an itch and a peeling of skin of cheeks (sometimes such phenomena are called “diathesis“),
- a persistent intertrigo, despite careful hygienic actions,
- a plentiful potnitsa at easy overheating,
- gneiss (formation of scales, a peeling) on hairy part of the head and eyebrows, the small tortoiseshell,
- swelled Quincke (a type of allergic reaction of which sudden emergence of hypostasis of skin, hypodermic cellulose and mucous membranes is characteristic).
in the form of defeats zheludochno - an intestinal path (at hypostasis mucous):
- of vomiting,
- a frequent and liquid chair with foam or impurity of greens,
- a lock,
- of colic,
- a meteorizm.
- in the form of respiratory violations (at hypostasis mucous airways):
- allergic cold,
- a bronchospasm (at a bronchospasm air does not come to airways or arrives with big difficulties - it is the most dangerous outcome of allergic hypostasis).
it is Especially dangerous to the newborn Quincke swelled. At Quincke`s hypostasis in a throat there is an asthma similar to an attack of bronchial asthma. At throat hypostasis at first the voice osiplost, the barking cough, then short wind with noisy breath appears. Complexion gets a cyanotic shade, then sharply turns pale.
also the combined damages of skin and intestines, skin and bronchial tubes Meet. Food allergy can be the forerunner of other allergic diseases: atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, etc.
of the Reason of food allergy
Quite naturally the question arises: from where chest kids have an allergy? The matter is that the children who are on breastfeeding, the reason of food allergy can have products used by the feeding mother; if the kid on artificial feeding - the products used by the kid.
What probability of emergence of food allergy in the child? Heredity first of all contributes to development of allergic reactions. The increased risk of developing of food allergy exists at children in whose families allergy cases were already recorded. If one of parents has an allergy, the risk of development of a similar disease in the child makes 37% and if both parent have allergic diseases, risk level reaches 62%.Krom of hereditary factors, the fruit hypoxia (oxygen insufficiency) can lead
to allergic reactions at the newborn during pregnancy and childbirth, transferred the kid sharp respiratorno - viral and intestinal infections with the subsequent violation of structure of intestinal microflora. Developing of food allergy at babies is connected with functional features of their digestive tract: still low activity of enzymes, low level of development of IgA - the protective antibodies located on a surface of mucous membranes zheludochno - an intestinal path. They provide local protection of mucous membranes of intestines against alien agents. And as the increased permeability of mucous membranes is characteristic of the newborn, allergens easily get into blood. And of course, allergic reactions are connected with violations in food of the nursing mother, with the excess use of high-allergenic products by her.
| of |
a Negative role is played by smoking of mother during pregnancy, presence at it chronic is warm - vascular and bronchopulmonary diseases, and also the infectious diseases transferred mother during pregnancy and the antibiotic treatment which is carried out in this regard. It is considered that children whose mothers during pregnancy used high-allergenic products which they treat cow`s milk, eggs, caviar, seafood, orange and red fruit and vegetables and juice from them, and also a kiwi, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, mushrooms, nuts, honey, have risk to become allergic persons.
Diagnosis of an allergy
If the child had symptoms similar with described above, then it is necessary to consult at the pediatrician, the children`s allergist or the nutritionist. At the expressed phenomena of food allergy, especially at the combined defeats when is available, for example skin rash and manifestations from outside zheludochno - an intestinal path, hospitalization in a specialized hospital can be necessary.the Diagnosis is established by
with the help:
- of the parents given poll,
- of establishment of communication between developing of an allergy and reception of a certain foodstuff,
- of survey of the child,
- of blood tests: high levels of the general immunoglobulin E, the increased quantity of eosinophils in blood test, testify to an allergy of
- of ultrasonic research of abdominal organs which allows to exclude not allergic nature of symptoms from a stomach and intestines.
One more fundamental issue: on what the child had an allergy? Prichinno - significant allergens at children of the first year of life make blood sampling from a vein for identification and define availability of specific immunoglobulins E. To children of more advanced age and adults apply a method of skin tests: reference allergens are applied on a surface of skin (a certain standard set of allergens which eggs, a citrus, chocolate enter, fish etc.), and after certain time results are estimated. Such researches need to be conducted prior to antiallergic treatment or after it.
the so-called food diary in which mother regularly (not less than 3 - 7 days) notes all types of food and drink received by it or the kid during the day helps to Reveal causal allergen specifies structure of dishes, features of their culinary processing, time of feeding and emergence of undesirable reactions (a liquid chair, vomiting, skin rashes etc.) .Treatment of an allergy
Treatment of food allergy begins
with a diet, an exception of a diet prichinno - significant food allergen. But it is not necessary “to struggle“ with an allergy independently; otherwise it can be aggravated, in each case the pediatrician, the allergist or the nutritionist has to define medical tactics.
| of |
First aid at the bronchospasm caused by allergic hypostasis:
If the kid is on natural feeding, then at first all potential allergens, including the products of industrial production incorporating crystal sugar, preservatives, emulsifiers of fats and artificial dyes (on a label these substances and are designated - emulsifiers, dyes) are excluded from mother`s diet for 1 - 2 weeks. Salt, sugar, strong broths, fried dishes are completely excluded. Limit also amount of dairy products. Let`s note that for the child with food allergy it is important to keep natural feeding.
Dietary recommendations for the feeding mothers
Are excluded by : Are allowed:
If the kid is on the artificial or mixed feeding, most likely the proteins of cow`s milk (special inspection will allow to establish it for certain) which are in children`s mix served as the reason of food allergy; therefore partial or full replacement of dairy mix with specialized hypoallergenic mixes (them the doctor appoints) on the basis of soy protein is necessary or special mixes in which protein is split to the level of separate amino acids (the hydrolyzed mixes) - in that case development of an allergy is impossible. But also in such food there are shortcomings: at the child the intolerance of soy protein can come to light, and the hydrolyzed mixes possess not palatable taste and are expensive.by
Further if it is possible to reveal the main source of an allergy, specifications can be brought in the carried-out earlier hypoallergenic diet - the product which caused allergic reaction is excluded. Such diet has to be kept throughout 1 - 3 - x months.
as a result of an allergen exception symptoms of food allergy have to disappear or decrease, then it is possible to expand gradually a food allowance of mother (however high-allergenic products are excluded).by
At treatment of food allergy by the doctor antihistaminic preparations, adsorbents, various creams and ointments for local treatment of skin including hormonal, in hard cases hormones are entered intravenously kapelno can be appointed. Also correction of intestinal microflora by the preparations containing bifido - and lactobacilli is carried out.
If the kid - the allergic person, then:Should avoid
to give a feeding up until achievement of 6 months by the child of age; besides, it is necessary to begin with those types of baby food which, most likely, will not cause allergic reaction and consist of one component; from wheat, fish, seafood, nuts it is better to enter cow`s milk, eggs, a citrus, products into the child`s diet after 1 - 2 years;you remember
- that any product used in food of the child, especially early age can cause allergic reactions;
- needs to monitor regular depletion of intestines if the child has locks which strengthen displays of an illness or are it the main reason (allergens do not manage to leave in due time intestines, are soaked up in blood and cause an allergy), to solve a problem with the help of the doctor; >
- it is better for li not to use the pharmacological means in the form of syrups containing various additives (dyes, fragrances), which capable to cause or strengthen an allergy;
- water temperature at water procedures has to be moderately warm, and procedure duration no more than 20 minutes;
- can apply only specialized children`s hypoallergenic cosmetics (rn - neutral); > water for bathing it is better for li to filter or defend
- within 1 - 2 hours for the purpose of dechlorination, with the subsequent addition of boiled water; it is necessary to avoid bathing in pools with the chlorinated water or to take after a session moderately warm shower with use of the soft clearing means;
- cannot pound the child`s skin basts; after bathing skin should be blotted accurately with a soft towel and to put the means moistening, softening skin;
- the clothes of the child have to be from natural materials, at the expressed allergic skin reactions it can be ironed; pillows and blankets have to have synthetic fillers; the kid should be dressed rationally, without allowing the overheats provoking allergic dermatitis;
- materials of which toys are made have to meet all safety requirements;
- use of synthetic detergents (toilet soaps with additives, bath foams, shower gels etc.) it is better to limit or on them marks have to be “hypoallergenic“
- is not recommended to support pets and even aquarian small fishes for whom dry feed can aggravate an allergy;
- air in housing has to be pure, cool, moderately damp; with the child it is desirable to walk more.
a question whether will stop at the child of display of food allergy with age? In process of growth functions of a liver and intestines, immune system are improved that allows to hope for the termination of an allergy to milk, eggs, vegetables and so forth, especially if parents will hold antiallergic events. Food allergy accompanies only 1 - 2% of children in adulthood.