Menstrual cycle: features of restoration
return of a regular menstrual cycle becomes One of signs of normal restoration of a female organism after the delivery that occurs not always smoothly. What happens to a basis of reproductive function of the woman after the birth of the child and what the complications arising at the same time are dangerous by?
the Menstrual cycle and its phases
the Menstrual cycle is one of manifestations of difficult biological process in the woman`s organism of which cyclic changes of function not only reproductive (reproductive) system are characteristic, but also is warm - vascular, nervous, endocrine and other systems of an organism.
If to speak more particularly, the menstrual cycle is a period of the first day one till first day of the following periods. Duration of a menstrual cycle differs at different women, but on average fluctuates from 21 to 35 days. It is important that the woman had duration of a menstrual cycle always approximately identical, - such cycle is considered regular.
Each normal menstrual cycle is preparation of an organism of the woman for pregnancy and consists of several phases:by
during of the first phase ovaries produces hormone estrogen which promotes swelling of an inside layer of a uterus, and in ovaries the follicle (a bubble in which there is an ovum) ripens. Then there is an ovulation - the mature follicle bursts and the ovum leaves it in an abdominal cavity.
In the second phase the ovum begins to move on uterine tubes to a uterus, ready to fertilization. This process lasts on average three days if during this time fertilization did not happen, then the ovum perishes. In the second phase of a menstrual cycle mainly to be produced by ovaries hormone progesterone thanks to which endometriya (an inside layer of a uterus) is going to accept the impregnated ovum.
If fertilization did not happen, endometriya it begins to be torn away that occurs from - for sharp decrease in production of progesterone. Blood allocations - periods begin. The periods are bloody allocations from a genital tract of the woman which first day marks the beginning of a new menstrual cycle. The normal periods proceed 3 - 7 days and at the same time 50 - 150 ml of blood are lost.
during pregnancy in an organism of future mother the changes connected with hormonal reorganization which are directed to pregnancy preservation that causes physiological amenoreyu (lack of periods) happen.
Sequence of restoration of menstrual function
After the child`s birth work of all endocrine glands, and also all other bodies and systems comes back to the doberemenny state. These important changes begin with the moment of exile of an afterbirth and about 6 - 8 weeks proceed. During this time in an organism of the woman important physiological processes are made: there take place almost all changes which arose in connection with pregnancy and childbirth in genitals, endocrine, nervous, cardiovascular and other systems; there is a formation and blossoming of function of mammary glands that is necessary for breastfeeding.
the Normal menstrual cycle represents the harmonious mechanism of work of ovaries and a uterus therefore process of restoration of work of these bodies is inseparable from each other. Involution process (the return development) of a uterus happens quickly. As a result of sokratitelny activity of muscles the sizes of a uterus decrease. During the first 10 - 12 days after the delivery the bottom of a uterus falls daily approximately by 1 cm. By the end 6 - 8 - y weeks after the delivery the size of a uterus corresponds to the sizes of not pregnant uterus (feeding can even have it less). Thus, the mass of a uterus by the end of the first week decreases more than half (350 - 400), and by the end of the postnatal period makes 50 - 60 g. The internal pharynx and the channel of a neck of a uterus are also quickly formed. To 10 - mu to day after the delivery the channel is completely created, but the external pharynx is passable for a finger-tip. Closing of an external pharynx comes to the end completely on 3 - y to week after the delivery, and it gets a slit-like form (before childbirth the channel of a neck of a uterus has the cylindrical form).
Speed of involution can depend on a variety of reasons: general condition, age of the woman, features of a course of pregnancy and childbirth, feeding by a breast etc. Involution can be slowed down in the following cases:
- at weakened and many times the giving birth women,
- at pervorodyashchy 30 years, are more senior than
- after pathological childbirth,
- at the wrong mode in the postnatal period.
After office of a placenta and the birth of an afterbirth mucous a uterus is a wound surface. Restoration of an internal surface of a uterus comes to an end usually to 9 - 10 - mu to day, restoration of a mucous membrane of a uterus - on 6 - 7 - y to week, and in the field of the placentary platform - on 8 - y to week after the delivery. In the course of healing of an internal surface of a uterus postnatal allocations - lokhiya appear. Their character throughout the postnatal period changes. Character of lokhiya during the postnatal period changes according to the happening processes of clarification and healing of an internal surface of a uterus:
- in the first days of a lokhiya along with the breaking-up particles of an internal cover of a uterus contain considerable impurity of blood;
- with Z - 4 - go day of a lokhiya gain character serozno - sanious liquid - rozovato - yellowish;
- to 10 - mu to day of a lokhiya become light, liquid, without blood impurity, their quantity gradually decreases;
- with 3 - y weeks they become poor (contain slime impurity from the cervical channel);
- on 5 - 6 - y to week of allocation from a uterus stop.
the Total of lokhiya the first 8 days of the postnatal period reaches 500 - 1400 g, they have a specific smell of rotten leaves.
At the slowed-down return development of a uterus allocation of lokhiya drags on, impurity of blood keeps longer. At obstruction of an internal pharynx a clot of blood or an excess of a uterus the congestion of lokhiya in a uterus cavity - a lokhiometra can result. The blood which accumulated in a uterus serves as a nutrient medium for development of microbes, such state demands treatment - application of the medicamentous means reducing a uterus or along with it still washings of a cavity of a uterus.to essential changes ovaries are also exposed to
In the postnatal period. The return development comes to an end it is yellow * go bodies - gland existing in an ovary during pregnancy on the place of the ovum which left in an abdominal cavity, impregnated then in a pipe. Hormonal function of ovaries is restored completely, and maturing of follicles - the bubbles containing ova begins again i.e. the normal menstrual cycle is restored.
Terms of restoration of a menstrual cycle
At most of not feeding women on 6 - 8 - y to week after the delivery there come the periods. At the feeding women generally periods do not happen several months or during the whole time of feeding by a breast though at some of them menstrual function is resumed soon after the end of the postnatal period, that is in 6 - 8 weeks after the delivery. Here you should not look for either norm, or pathology as terms of restoration of a menstrual cycle after the delivery at each woman are individual. It is connected, as a rule, with a lactation. The matter is that after the delivery in an organism of the woman Prolactinum which stimulates production of milk in a female organism is produced hormone. At the same time Prolactinum suppresses formation of hormones in ovaries, and, therefore, interferes with maturing of an ovum and an ovulation - to an ovum exit from an ovary.
If the kid is entirely on breastfeeding, that is eats only breast milk, then the menstrual cycle at his mother is often restored after the beginning of introduction of a feeding up. If the child is on the mixed feeding, that is besides breast milk the diet of the kid includes mixes, then the menstrual cycle is restored in 3 - 4 months. At artificial feeding when the kid receives only dairy mix, periods are restored, as a rule, by second month after the delivery.
the First periods after the delivery
the First periods after the delivery more often happen “anovulyatorny“: the follicle (a bubble in which there is an ovum) ripens, but the ovulation - an ovum exit“ does not come from an ovary. The follicle is exposed to the return development, and disintegration and rejection of a mucous membrane of a uterus - menstrual bleeding begin at this time. Further process of an ovulation is resumed, and menstrual function is restored completely. However approach of an ovulation and pregnancy within the first months after the delivery is possible.many factors, such as exert
On restoration of menstrual function impact:
- the course of pregnancy and complication of childbirth,
- age of the woman, the healthy and good nutrition,
- observance of the mode of a dream and rest,
- existence of chronic diseases,
- nervously - a mental state and many other factors.
What problems arise at young mothers at restoration of menstrual function?
Regularity of a menstrual cycle: after the delivery periods can become regular at once, but can be established within 4 - 6 months, that is during this period intervals between them can vary, differ a little from each other more than for 3 days. But, if 4 - 6 months later after the first postnatal periods the cycle remains irregular, then it is a reason for the address to the doctor.
Duration of a menstrual cycle after the delivery can change. So, if before childbirth the cycle made 21 or 31 days, then the probability is high that after the delivery its duration will become average, for example 25 days.
periods Duration , that is bloody allocations has to make 3 - 5 days. Too short (1 - 2 day) and, especially, too long periods can be the certificate of any pathology - uterus myomas (a benign tumor), endometriosis - a disease at which the inside layer of a uterus of endometriya in uncharacteristic places expands.
the Volume of menstrual allocations can make 50 - 150 ml, too small, as well as too large amount of menstrual blood can also be the certificate of gynecologic diseases. Though in the first several months after the first postnatal periods there can be some deviations, but they have to correspond to a framework of physiological norm nevertheless: so, in the most plentiful days of one average laying has to be enough for 4 - 5 hours.
Long the smearing bloody allocations at the beginning or at the end of periods are also a reason for the address to the doctor as most often confirm existence of endometriosis, inflammatory diseases - an endometritis (an inflammation of an internal cover of a uterus), etc.
Sometimes the periods are followed by pains . They can be caused by the general immaturity of an organism, psychological features, the accompanying inflammatory processes which arose after the delivery, strong muscular contractions of walls of a uterus. If pain is that that they disturb the woman during periods, forces it to accept repeatedly anesthetics, spazmolitichesky preparations, breaks a normal rhythm of life, such state is called algodismenoreya and demands consultation of the doctor. to
Though often after the delivery. It is caused by the fact that morbidity can be caused by a certain position of a uterus - a bend of a uterus of a kzada, after the delivery the uterus acquires the normal provision.
during periods often of chronic inflammatory diseases - endometritises (a uterus inflammation), salpingooforita (an inflammation of appendages) become aggravated. At the same time there are considerable pains in the bottom of a stomach, allocations can become very plentiful, with an unpleasant, uncharacteristic smell. It is necessary to track existence or lack of these symptoms especially if inflammatory complications were after the delivery observed.
Some women complain of so-called a premenstrual syndrome . This state which is shown not just irritability, bad mood or tendency to tears, and the whole complex of symptoms. Among them: a nagrubaniye and morbidity of a breast, a headache, a liquid delay in an organism and hypostases, joint pains, allergic manifestations, scattered attention, sleeplessness.
many versions concerning the reasons of development of a premenstrual syndrome Exist, but there is no only reason which is its cornerstone, in this regard there is no concrete preparation which would cure it completely. If the woman is disturbed by similar symptoms, it is necessary to consult with the doctor who will appoint the corresponding treatment.
After the delivery, especially complicated (bleedings, heavy gestoza with the expressed hypostases, substantial increase of arterial pressure, up to development of a convulsive syndrome, a so-called eklampsiya), dysfunction of ovaries which are connected with violation of the central regulation - regulation of production of hormones of a hypophysis (the endocrine gland which is in a brain) can arise. At the same time development of ova in ovaries is broken, there are hormonal changes and, as a result, violation of periods in the form of delays which can be replaced by bleeding. At similar manifestations surely it is necessary to resort to the help of experts.Restoration of menstrual function after Cesarean section
the Complicated course of childbirth can also lead
to various violations of periods. In this regard especially there is a wish to note features of restoration of menstrual function at women after Cesarean section. Periods at them come, as a rule, to the same terms, as after usual childbirth. However at complications in the postoperative period menstrual function can long not be restored in connection with longer period of involution of a uterus from - for existence of a seam, and also longer process of normalization of function of ovaries at infectious complications. Most likely, in this case consultation of the gynecologist who will pick up necessary therapy is required.
After the birth of the kid at young mother load of endocrine and nervous system increases. When feeding by a breast the need for vitamins, minerals and minerals which are necessary for the woman for the correct functioning of ovaries and production of hormones by them increases. At their shortcoming there can be such problems as poor or painful periods. Therefore women are after the delivery recommended to accept polyvitamins with a complex of minerals for nursing mothers and the good nutrition including dairy products, meat, vegetables and fruit.
Besides, care of the newborn takes away many forces and time at young mother, at the same time it is necessary to remember that they lack of a full-fledged night dream, a sleep debt can result in increased fatigue, weakness, sometimes even to depressions that also negatively influence formation of menstrual function. In this connection it is necessary to make the mode so that young mother had time to have a rest during the day, whenever possible to keep night time for good rest. > As it was already told by
to p above, existence of chronic diseases can also negatively affect formation of menstrual function, especially diseases endocrine systemsy (thyroid gland, diabetes, etc.). Therefore in the postnatal period it is necessary to carry out correction of these diseases in common with experts that will allow to avoid violations of a menstrual cycle.
in conclusion wants to note that restoration of normal menstrual function after the delivery - one of the main conditions of future health of the woman. Therefore any problems connected with its violations have to be solved together with the doctor.