Energy of merchants
Kremlin, Red Square, GUM. This combination of toponyms is known to each Russian. And to the one who was in Moscow, and to each of those who dreams of visit of the capital. Undoubted decoration of Red Square is the huge shop “Top Malls“ which in Soviet period became the central “State department store“ in the city and the country.History of the center
In old times all Red Square was built up with
. There were also 15 small churches with cemeteries, different trade benches. After the numerous ruinous fires Ivan III issued in 1494 the decree under which within 109 it is put off the Kremlin wall from forbade to be under construction. And at walls of the Kremlin then the spacious area was formed, and many churches were united in one cathedral by the side-altars (Troitsk that on a ditch, later renewed as Pokrovsky). The area at different times carried also different names: The fire, Troitsk, the Frontal market, the Bargaining, Red (there was even an offer to call it Ekaterina`s in honor of Catherine II). dealers made by
In old times on the place of the modern building of GUM attempt to order the work - formed simple ranks where various goods were on sale. As there came also nonresident businessmen (differently - “guests“), ranks were united by the name “Gostiny dvor“. After construction of new huge Gostiny dvor between Ilyinskaya and the Barbarian the fact that worked at the Red Square began to be called “old Gostiny dvor“. And when the last O. Bowe reconstructed (to the uniform building with columns in 1814 - 1815) two Gostiny dvor exchanged verbal additions “new“ and “old“ - on many ancient cards it is possible to see this alternation.
there Passed decades
to track history of transformations on this place opposite to the Senatorial tower of the Kremlin, will look through pages of the turned yellow old editions. In them we will read the following paragraphs from different articles.
Message of 1895. On May 10, 1880 the project and the financial plan of reorganization of new Top malls at Red Square was approved in St. Petersburg by the emperor. First Malls at Red Square were founded in 1626 and built under the decree of the tsar Mikhail Fedorovich here after the strong fire of spring of the same year which devastated all trade benches: Ranks suffered in 1812, are built again up in 1815: From 23 projects of 1889 exposed for a public review in halls of the Historical museum, the first place (6 thousand rubles) received A. N. Pomerantsev`s project (under the motto to “The Moscow merchants“), the second place (3 thousand rubles) - R. I. Klein (under the motto “According to the Program“) and the third (2 thousand rubles) - A. E. Weber (“Good luck“). On May 21, 1890 solemn laying of the new building took place, and opening took place on December 2, 1893. The total cost of construction of New malls exceeded 14 million rubles (I will note that in 1886 the big old room was closed, its dismantling began). For now built the new building, trade was carried out in temporary pavilions which arranged close with the Kremlin wall - approximately where now there are guest stands).
1892 . About 4 thousand people worked at construction of the top ranks. The artesian well which is located in the basement floor is of not smaller interest the huge sizes. It has depth 50 is put off and capable to give big and enough water. It is supplied with the gas motor. From the Moscow central power plant by means of the special drive (on system of Siemens) from 258 batteries it is possible to load with electricity ranks for two days of autonomous work. This motor is placed near an artesian well: On March 4, 1890 general meeting of shareholders of Most highly approved “Society of the Top malls at the Red Square“ it was decided to assign on construction 5810 rubles.
1894 . The top malls light 7 thousand electric bulbs.
1896 . In the middle of September in the building of the Top malls the art exhibition of ancient school and graceful stylish things from bronze and porcelain from G. A. Brokar`s collection opens again. Collecting from an entrance fee is intended for the charitable purposes.
1898 . In the Top malls against a monument to Minin and Pozharsky daily representations of Electric theater.“ The mountain gorge in Switzerland in the afternoon, at night, in the morning and in the evening, during a thunder-storm, a rain, a storm and so forth “-the most advanced cinema. The program increased is also made of the best numbers. There are new pictures: “Serpentine“, “A storm by the sea“, “Bullfight“, “Akvary“, as well as a big picture in three offices - “Mephistopheles`s Laboratory“. Are shown as well historical pictures:“ Anniversary celebrations of the Queen Victoria in London “, “ Not Ron experiences effect of poison on the slaves“, and others. Representations are given of 2 o`clock in the afternoon to 11 o`clock in the evening. The part of all collecting comes to advantage of “A red cross“.
1899 . In the Top malls the museum which is willingly visited by buyers works.
1913 . 25 - summer anniversary. Thanks to tireless energy of the foreman of merchants A. E. Kolchugin the joint-stock company which brought implementation of the project of construction of the enormous building into life was organized. The cost of construction was reached by 5 million rubles, projects under mottoes arrived from different places of Russia and from - for borders. Under the building there is own artesian well: In the building of the Top malls there are underground trade rooms. Underground also the whole restaurants are placed.
1925 , advertizing:“To Tom the frost ominous is not terrible
, Who in GUM will buy
I will not begin to describe times of the Soviet period - they in memory of our compatriots. But I want to note that the first fire kalancha in Moscow was constructed in 1806 especially for supervision over the fires arising in the Top malls. It can be seen in old photos over a roof of Provincial offices (Istorichesky Drive, 1).
Interesting, undoubtedly, is that in this big mall were and the is religious - cultural rooms, and at its heavy repair in 1990 - x years restorers managed to find two original icons over entrances to galleries. They were for many years immured under cement. These images of Christ and Mother of God can be seen from Nikolskaya Street now.