Rus Articles Journal

Trimming of

Operation of removal of extreme flesh (circumcisio, tsirkumtsizio - lat.) apparently, one of the most ancient in the history of mankind. Historical roots of trimming so deeply go to thickness of a civilization that now it is only approximately possible to speak about time and the reasons for which the first operation was performed. However, whatever were the reasons of its emergence, this custom is live still, and today thousands of newborns are exposed to trimming.

Rock paintings demonstrate that the tsirkumtsiziya was carried out already during paleolith era, about 15 000 years ago. A large number of evidence of carrying out procedure in Ancient Egypt remained.

Trimming was carried out and carried out by

with the ritual (cultural), religious, hygienic purpose, and also on medical indications.

Ritual trimming is extended by

in the tribes of Africa, Hugo - East Asia, at natives of Australia. Trimming is carried out at once after the birth of the child or at teenage age as a sign of transition to an adult state.

the Ceremony of trimming is an integral part of Judaism and Islam.

By the word of the Talmud...

In the Jewish community trimming is carried out by the person who is specially trained for this purpose - mohel (mokhet). Mokhel has to be obligatory the Jewish man, with the cut-off extreme flesh. The Talmud says that to execute trimming to the sons - the father`s duty. If the parent does not execute the order of God, then he can be punished by shortening of years of life. If the boy`s father for any reason is not able to execute a precept, then with it it has to be helped by a community. After thirteen years, aged, when, according to the Talmud, the person himself becomes responsible for implementation of the ordered Laws, the man if it was not cut off according to the Writing in the early childhood, has to execute this procedure independently or call a mokhel.

According to the Talmud, extreme flesh during trimming completely is removed and the head of a penis has to be naked. If extreme flesh or its part closes a coronal furrow (a furrow which is on border of a head and a body of a penis), then such Jew is considered not cut off.

If the newborn by the time of the ordered trimming term (8 days) is sick with

(the increased temperature, emergence of rash or jaundice is mentioned in the Talmud), then trimming at it should be postponed and executed in 7 days after recovery. Also, according to the Talmud if at mother two children after trimming died before or similar cases were noted at her sisters, then is circumcised the following boy only in an adult state or does not become absolutely. It prevented death of boys from hemophilia (the blood disease breaking its coagulability) as a result of bleeding.

It is visible to

that transfer of a disease on the female line was already at that time tracked that is confirmed now with genetic researches. Trimming is spent more often at home, in an environment of relatives and friends. The special probe makes separation of an internal leaf of extreme flesh from a head surface then extreme flesh is clamped in the special tool and is cut off by a two-edged special knife.

It is very important

that the head and a coronal furrow after procedure were completely open. Anesthesia is not applied. No seams are used. The pressing bandage is applied a penis for a stop of bleeding. By tradition the newborn receives a name at once after carrying out procedure. It is considered that mokhet carries out procedure free of charge as God`s order, however by tradition the father of the child pays some sum in gratitude. In Israel for carrying out trimming there are special rooms in hospitals.

the Sign of belonging to Islam

Removal of extreme flesh was characteristic

of many Arab tribes even before adoption of Moslem in the 7th century of our era. In the Koran there is no mention of trimming. Tsirkumtsiziya more speaks about belonging to the Arab world, than about Muslim belief, and, according to many religious schools of Islam, is quite admissible to be the devout Muslim and to keep extreme flesh. However on modern representations trimming as if is one more confirmation of belonging to Muslim belief and was recommended by some prophets. Therefore, despite the absence of in the Koran, unlike Judaism, the accurate instruction to cut off extreme flesh, nearly 100% of Muslim boys are exposed to this procedure.

the Choice of the person which will execute procedure depends on traditions of the country, culture and welfare of a family. In rich Gulf States it is accepted to trust this important procedure to professional surgeons and to carry out in the conditions of clinic. In poorer countries the bulk of boys passes through hands of special devout Muslims, so-called “obrezyvatel“, and more poor resorts to the help of hairdressers, average medical personnel, etc. Well and as a last resort to the child the father can execute trimming. For this purpose in some Muslim countries special tool kits for independent performance of a ceremony are on sale.

intervention is carried out by

In a traditional look at Muslims without anesthesia, the cut-off leaves of extreme flesh are not sewed among themselves, bleeding does not stop or the wound falls down wood ashes. As a rule, process of trimming is followed by a holiday to which family members and relatives are invited. Despite enormous practice of trimming, in the world several lethal outcomes annually are registered. Generally it is bleeding cases at children with earlier not diagnosed diseases of the curtailing system of blood, most often hemophilia. Also when performing trimming in insanitary conditions cases of gangrene of a penis and sepsis (blood poisoning) meet.

“Hygienic operation“

Hygienic trimming is a removal of extreme flesh for the purpose of the prevention of complications possible in the future.

Before speaking about hygienic trimming, let`s understand and that is represented by extreme flesh and what functions are assigned to it. Is it useless for a man`s organism?

Extreme flesh - one of the most ancient anatomic educations of living beings on Earth. It developed at primacies (whom the person and some monkeys treats) at least 65 million years ago. Extreme flesh is the organic part of a penis serving for protection of skin of a head and mucous a meatus (an external opening of an urethra) from external influence. Besides, extreme flesh is as if a skin stock which is required at increase in a penis during an erection. In skin of extreme flesh a huge number tactile, reacting to a touch, the receptors belonging to the class of the most sensitive characteristic, for example, for finger-tips. And the head of a penis possesses considerably smaller sensitivity, comparable, for example, with sensitivity of a sole. Now it is clear why during removal of extreme flesh duration of sexual intercourse increases that is even recommended to the men suffering from a premature ejaculation. Reduction of quantity and quality of tactile receptors prolongs sexual intercourse, but due to decrease in intensity of feelings.

In the extreme flesh gladkomyshechny cages which are capable to be reduced or relax at change of surrounding temperature are. At fall of temperature they are reduced, and extreme flesh densely covers and closes a head, carrying out protective function. Promotes this process as well existence of a large amount of elastichesky fibers thanks to which extreme flesh comes back to the place after moving or an erection. Extreme flesh carries out the same role for a penis head that an eyelid for an eye. Of course this role is not so big, and millions of people happily live without extreme flesh, but in essence this statement is right. By the way, the northern people have no tradition of trimming of extreme flesh.

With what everything began

?

the Largest country where hygienic trimming is still widely carried out, is the USA. Hygienic trimming became wide to be used in the English-speaking countries since the 19th century as means of fight against an onanism. The Swiss doctor Samuel Tissot in 1758 gave to trimming pseudoscientific justification in the book “The Treatise about the Diseases Caused by an Onanism“.

Mass hygienic trimming in America began

with the end of the 19th century. The American millionaire John Harvey Kellogg, the producer of corn flakes which decided to relieve thus the nation of “the demon of masturbation“ was his ideologist. Being a rich and influential person, D.Kh. Kellogg launched the most powerful campaign propagandizing trimming. He wrote:“ ... means from masturbation which almost always helps is a trimming in infancy. And operation needs to be performed without anesthesia that the pain accompanying intervention influenced mentality. It is good if it is connected also with idea of punishment“. Mass trimming of the population was so favorable financial enterprise for the American doctors and insurance companies that remains in America still, periodically changing the purpose. If in the 19th century by means of trimming of extreme flesh fought against masturbation, then during World War II propagandized a tsirkumtsiziya as venereal diseases medicine, then the promise of reduction of a disease of a penis cancer was added to advantage of trimming. Presently supporters of hygienic trimming recommend it as means of fight against AIDS.

1975 the American academy of pediatrics passed to

B the decision that there is no medical the confirmed indication to carrying out preventive trimming. In the USA in 1976 hygienic trimming was executed at 80% of boys. It occurred for a number of reasons (a large number of the Muslim and Jewish population, broad promotion of trimming). But in 1981 the number of operations decreased to 61% and continues to decrease. In Europe the number of operations of a tsirkumtsiziya are much less. So, for example, in Great Britain no more than 6% of boys are exposed to trimming.

the Option

We told

to

about purely medical indications and contraindications to hygienic trimming. But there is also ethical or maybe even legal side of a question. Whether parents for the boy have the right to resolve an issue of deprivation of its part of a body (and trimming in essence is partial amputation of a penis) in exchange for doubtful benefit?

When the decision on carrying out to himself tsirkumtsiziya is made by the adult, he, on modern legal norms, signs the so-called informed consent where the essence of operation and possible complications has to be explained. This consent really has to be informed, that is contain full and accurate information on the forthcoming intervention. Parents are responsible for the child to full age age. If in case of emergency situations, injuries or at obvious defects of development there are strict medical indications and in these cases the opinion and desire of parents coincides with the solution of a medical consultation, then at hygienic trimming all responsibility lays down on parents. Removal, even with good intentions, healthy part of a body cannot be considered as treatment. How the child will treat lack of extreme flesh when grows? Interests of children are protected by the Convention of the rights of the child and documents regulating the legal moments of treatment of children in which it is unambiguously said that the child has to be protected from unnecessary medical treatment or inspection.

Strictly speaking, from purely legal point of view, trimming of the baby for the religious reasons is also illegal. Any person has the right for free religion, commission of religious cults and ceremonies, but only in case they do not do harm to life and health. Opponents of religious trimming adduce also other argument in protection of newborn boys. Making a trimming ceremony, parents, as if already out of will of the child, rank it as a certain religion, than the principle of freedom of worship is broken. Perhaps, it is better to leave the choice for the child on reaching reasonable age when it is able independently to decide on the choice of religion and to solve, to leave or keep extreme flesh? However such approach so contradicts thousand-year cultural tradition both Islam, and Judaism that now hardly its perhaps real embodiment in life. The long-term education of parents first of all proceeding from the circle of believers to change tradition is required. Now many make trimming to the children not from - for deep beliefs, and more being afraid of condemnation of relatives and society.

by

“Make everything as was!“

Prosecution of Jews who had an obligatory trimming, caused development and the opposite operations restoring extreme flesh. The first documentary confirmed medical restoration of extreme flesh was carried out by Tsels at the beginning of our era. These operations gained the greatest development in the Middle Ages at the time of inquisition blossoming. Even on the world famous statue of David built in Florence in 1504, the penis is not cut off though David was Jew and in reality for certain underwent trimming. In the last decades in the world the number of operations on restoration of extreme flesh, especially in those countries where hygienic trimming at newborns was widely applied increases.

In the history of mankind cultures with tradition existed “to hide“ a penis head. So, for example, Greeks were not ashamed of the nakedness, however was considered indecent if the head of a penis was not covered by extreme flesh. Moreover, in Ancient Greece was considered indecent to publicly bare a penis head. In order that it did not occur, extreme flesh was clasped by special adaptation - fibuly from which there was a word an infibulyation (closing of extreme flesh). Infibulyation was widespread in a classical antiquity. In the Middle Ages about it practically forgot, but in Renaissance the infibulyation appeared already in an arsenal of medicine of that time as means of fight against an onanism again. And now she still practices in some tribes of Africa and Asia. The essence of manipulation is that in the extreme flesh openings through which special latches which were made of iron, bronze, silver or gold were carried out were made. Such here antique piercing.

In the 9th century. The German surgeon Veyngold in 1827 suggested “to lock“ extreme flesh at men who, in his opinion, should not leave behind posterity. In this category it carried seriously ill, criminals, soldiers, unmarried servants and podmasteriya. It was supposed that the metal latch will be sealed by a State Seal for which unauthorized removal punishment was necessary.

Infibulyation`s

exists and now as a fashionable kind of piercing.

When all this is it is necessary?

Indications to trimming for the medical reasons are existence of a cicatricial fimoz, an inflammation of extreme flesh, a cyst of extreme flesh. In general detailed information on extreme flesh at the population is absent. Many parents, and especially mothers, poorly represent how extreme flesh what functions are inherent in it why it is necessary is arranged. Mother or the father concerned by something conduct the child to the children`s surgeon or the urologist among whom there is also no uniform point of view on many questions concerning the relation to extreme flesh and its various diseases. In our opinion, whenever possible it is necessary to keep extreme flesh, however if there are strict medical indications, then rather simple expeditious treatment - trimming of extreme flesh - atleads to treatment of your child. However, before deciding on operation, consult with the skilled urologist - the andrologist - the expert who is engaged in treatment of diseases of genitals of boys.