Problems of school adaptation. Part II
of Options of violations of adaptation. At one children they can be shown in the form of a hyper dynamic syndrome. They begin to be characterized as inattentive, restless, undisciplined. At certain children reactions of an active protest, the increased affective excitability can be fixed. To parents complain of manifestations of aggression, pugnacity, speech negativism. At the same time no most strict admonitions, bans, punishments usually help. In some cases there are situations when the conflict leads to what at the child will arise “emotionally - a touch stopper“, misunderstanding of the speech turned to it. He in general can cease to speak.
U of quite successful girls in the preschool childhood, in view of the unsuccessful beginning of occupations at school, the tearfulness not peculiar to them slackness, passivity, indifference to surrounding arises before. The child with vulnerable nervous system can in general cease to talk to schoolmates in a class, to refuse to answer at a board.
U of difficult adaptive children addictions can arise or renew: kusaniye of nails, sucking of a finger, plucking out of eyebrows, onanism. At defects of pedagogical process or conflict situations in a family adaptation can end with its failure, violation of sight, a bearing, various nervous breakdowns. If in time not to give to children the qualified help, such behavior will be consolidated for many years, will disturb in many respects in life.
For the prevention of so serious consequences , reductions of terms of adaptation and simplification of nature of its course, health protection and wellbeing of the child, to parents it is necessary to take care of the corresponding physical, psychological, emotional and his social training to school. It is better to begin such preparation several years prior to the first class.to Parents also needs to be prepared by
for school well. Beforehand, by means of medical specialists, psychologists, logopedists and teachers - tutors - can be defined and, in a certain measure, to eliminate factors of “risk“ of school not success. It is for this purpose recommended to hold necessary diagnostic, preventive and correctional events. Individual programs of training of the child for school can be developed for children with features of development.
to Parents should be watched attentively adaptation of the child to school, to estimate his everyday mood and behavior. It is important to learn to estimate really possibilities of the child in assimilation of the school program chosen by you. It is necessary to be able to notice progress in assimilation of new knowledge, to allocate the problem parties, to look for possibilities of their overcoming.the Special part in this process is assigned by
to mother. Sensitive and attentive, she can create in the house, and in process of possible, and at school, the atmosphere of understanding, trust, help. It is good if mother understands problems of the child, knows about the main school requirements, can stimulate study and support the child, is able to regulate his behavior. Such mother can influence essentially adaptation process, promote removal of the crisis phenomena, development of necessary school skills.
the Father has to help the child too. Quietly, surely and gradually he can teach the child not to give in to difficulties, to understand difficult situations, to resolve contradictions, to get on with children, to behave, to study successfully.Only with participation and support of the loving and understanding parents the child will feel
in safety, will feel self-confidence, in the forces and opportunities.
Gradually, quietly and kindly, teach the child to estimate yourself adequately, to study independently. At the same time he should not be hurried, to overload with various tasks and remarks. The child cannot be suppressed and intimidated. Also negative estimation of his behavior, ridiculing of mistakes will not help. Irritability and punishments not only do not lead to success, but also are illegal.
Bad assistants in the solution of problems of a transition period.to Parents should understand
that successful start depends not only on attention to the child, but also on his physical and mental development. School programs allow training of differently prepared children. However not all children equally possess the developed linguistic, mathematical, touch, mnemichesky and other abilities. The reasons of a delay and an originality of their development there can be a set. First of all, it is important to exclude consequences of organic defeat and decrease in activity of organs of hearing, sight, motorno - the motive device, it is warm - vascular and nervous system of the child for what it is necessary to address the corresponding experts.
In the preschool childhood parents or teachers could not pay attention that the child has hearing disorder. It could learn to avoid in some way situations in speeches in which the related development of acoustical perceptions would be rather expressed. At the same time, the mistakes noted during the reading or the letter, for example - replacement of sounds, distortion of a sound - syllabic structure of the word, it is inexact the used words, distortion lexicon - the grammatical party of the speech - can be connected with a hearing disorder. Owing to this fact, the child will not be able to avoid mistakes that will affect his success in mastering of humanitarian knowledge system, the fields of activity linguistically mediated.
It is frequent in problems with tasks and exercises on grammar or to mathematics the poor eyesight is guilty. If not to check sight at the very beginning of training, future Lobachevsky or Tsvetaeva can not take place.
At elementary school should concern to levoruky children, children at whom the leading hand (a leg, an ear, an eye) were not defined yet more attentively. They often are mistaken when performing the tasks connected with orientation in time and space or when learn to read and write. In the presence of resistant specific mistakes which are not connected with violation of intellectual development, hearing and sight, or an irregularity of school training it is necessary to think whether your child is an obvious or “hidden“ lefthander.
not formation of any motility, insufficiency of hearing - motor koordination and feeling of a rhythm prevents to Study Russian, reading and mathematics to such children. The first school problems at them arise in connection with not formation of the speech, an insufficient level of development of manual skill, the corporal scheme and feeling of a rhythm. These children sluggishness, attention accentuation distinguishes, instability of mood.by
At lefthanders and so-called lefthanders - right-handed persons complicated “cortical control“ over many kinds of activity therefore it is possible to demand from them high-quality performance of tasks only after long years of purposeful work on development of this quality. In case of careful, competent escort of such children in the first years of the beginning of training, they can cope with the features and on many bases to surpass schoolmates.
to Understand the course of school adaptation, to help professionally with overcoming of difficulties, specific mistakes in assimilation of the training program, you will be helped by logopedists, psychologists, physicians. It is necessary to address them several years prior to school or in the first months of training in the first class. Of course, in case of serious school problems to the child all the time of training is better to be in elementary school under supervision of experts.
the Disregarded problems of the first school months usually involve permanent changes in character and the identity of the child. His disobedience, aggression, refusal of performance of tasks, unwillingness to study, or, on the contrary, passivity, inertness, the lowered working capacity mask feeling of deep internal alarm, fear, feeling of own helplessness and inferiority which only the parents loving and understanding the child can understand and overcome.Can consider
that adaptation took place successfully if the child is emotionally stable, feels healthy, well works at lessons, behaves according to the standard norms, accustomed to a role of the pupil. The good sign - to the child is pleasant to go to school, it is interesting to it to study, it brings good marks, it has a kind mood, a quiet dream and normal appetite.
It does not mean that all problems with training remained behind and parents can calm down. Ahead crisis of teenage age, adaptation to training conditions at high school... It is better for parents to be prepared for them in advance.we Will sum up of
some results. What “risk factors“ for the child who goes to the first class?
- of Partial lag and violations in physical development:
- insufficient development of motor skills, abilities to regulate and for a certain time to reduce high physical activity;
- formation of the wrong bearing;
- insufficient development of small muscles of a brush, difficulty at coordination of movements of fingers of hands, any motility;
- high (more than 4 times a year) incidence of a SARS, chronic diseases, frequent aggravations;
- not formation of the scheme of the body (alternate use of the left or right hand, leg, eye, ear as leaders);
- decrease in hearing, sight, hearing - motor koordination;
- absence or insufficient development of feeling of a rhythm.
- of Delay and features of mental and personal development:
- not formation spatially - temporary representations and orientations;
- affective unbalance and immaturity, disruptions of communication “mother - the child“
- a low level of development of the external and internal speech, restriction of a lexicon, existence of defects of a pronunciation, inability to analyze language material;
- a shortcoming and an inaccuracy of the gained knowledge and representations, limitation of personal experience;
- of difficulty in concentration, distribution, switching of attention;
- the small volume of any storing, slowness and low accuracy of reproduction, tendency to a fast zabyvaniye of the learned material;
- inability to reveal prichinno - investigative communications and the relations, characteristic signs of objects, low level of mastering the touch diploma;
- some individually - typological features of behavior, mood, a self-assessment.
the trouble Signals testifying to problems, heavy course and a tightening of the period of adaptation .Children are ill
- , lose weight, appetite decreases, the sleep vanishes and is interrupted, there are headaches.
- violations in habitual nature of behavior, mood Arise: aggression or slackness, isolation or hypererethism is noted.
- Decreases or at all the desire to study, to go to school vanishes.
- negative forms of behavior Arise.
- there are fears, neurosis develops. - cannot read Alexy`s
- , agraphia - cannot write, the akalkuliya - cannot consider, aphasia - cannot say that it already demonstrates focal damages of a brain. by
- fix resistant deviations in personal development.
to Considerable reduction of terms of adaptation are promoted...
- Normal (corresponding to age of the child) level of physical and mental development, speech, informative processes; motor functions. The exercises directed to their preservation and further development. the Day regimen of the child of the house and at school, time of occupations, rest, active walk of food and a dream is especially important to establish
- the Good shape of health, high general performance acquired to school.
- Success in the solution of problems of educational activity. Professional support, quiet and consecutive correction of mistakes. the Motivation of the child and his parents is one mastering more increasing than
- a circle of knowledge, educational activity, overcoming of difficulties in study, on self-development.
- Establishment of the confidential and benevolent relations with the teacher and peers at school.
- Attention to difficulties in mastering the training program, to character of the relations with the teacher and a class developing at the child, behavior of the child at school and houses.
- Unconditional love of parents, acceptance of the child it what it is, care, attention to its problems. Understanding and the concrete help from parents, good conditions and positive relationship in a family.
What the tightening of terms of adaptation and absence of the competent, address, consecutive and concrete help and support is dangerous from parents and teachers during this period?
- the Child hardly and without pleasure seizes the program of elementary school, is estimated as poor.
- permanent negative self-estimation which is quite often camouflaged under cynicism, destructive forms of behavior and relationship Arises.
- neurosises, mental deviations Arise.
We hope that in your family of it will not occur, “forewarned is forearmed“. Let`s help our first graders to overcome successfully the first school difficulties, to become more adult and self-assured.