Rus Articles Journal

Problems of school adaptation. Part I

Came The First of September. Parents of first graders long before this day chose school for the children, bought school supplies, a form, received textbooks. All family with nervousness waited for the first school day, parents worried about how children will have relations with the teacher and schoolmates.

All want

that training was successful and caused less troubles. On a question: “How you will study at school?“ - future first graders surely answer: “On five!“ . And though the concept of success is relative, really important that affairs in school were successful.

As careful parents, you already made a lot of things in order that as it is possible to prepare the children for school better. Future first graders learned a lot of things, gained a fair idea of many objects and the phenomena of world around, learned a set of poems, with pleasure retold fairy tales and different stories. They even learned to read and consider though they and did not advise parents it to do. Showed to children school, their class, carried out along school corridors and recreations, explained as it is necessary to behave at lessons. Physicians, psychologists, teachers of kindergarten, where your children to school went, gave the positive characteristic to the level of their speech and informative development, delivered positive points of “a school maturity“. And all - is disturbing.

I it is good that at parents some share of concern which characterizes as loving them, careful, responsible for the present and the future of the child is noted. Such parents attentively watch the accustoming course to new conditions and his first progress and difficulties empathize with the child.

difficulty

A in the first days of training arise practically at all children. New experiences, requirements, forms of the organization of activity demand so many forces and tension from first graders that the behavior of children can differ markedly from habitual. Insufficiently competent teacher can have the wrong idea of the child as his behavior, style of communication with other children in a class can not correspond to its character, tendencies and interests. Having appeared at school, beginners - first graders become as if not similar on themselves.

of the House or in kindergarten the child easily, freely and surely coped with various quite difficult movements, instructions, intellectual tasks. At school, on the contrary, he feels some uncertainty in what can execute everything that the teacher demands from it. At the same time, moves it desire to make everything as it is possible better, perfectly. In practice it turns out so that children as if lose ability to think independently, quite often repeat that speak and do others.

the attention of first graders is unstable

In the first days of occupations, concentrates on very narrow site, badly switches. It is difficult for them to concentrate for a long time on performance of tasks, answers of companions. Children often do not understand that the task explained to all class is related also to him. Having been fond of performance of some exercise, it is diligent and scrupulous it carrying out, they do not notice that all others already got to new work.

One precisely “frozen“ sit at a lesson, are afraid to stir. They are sluggish, slowed down and so concentrated that literally do not see and do not hear anything around, control the behavior, do not notice that they do and as others behave. From overfatigue some child can in general cease to be interested in the maintenance of a lesson: to get the fruit or sandwiches made by parents, to begin to eat them. Further it will turn out that it is living, emotional, a little playful, cheerful and lively children.

Other first graders (boys are more often), on the contrary, seem excessively active, excited, emotional. Without any evil intention, with a smile and pleasure on a face (apropos and without cause) they break an order in a class. Can spontaneously pass from a table to a table, talk on foreign subjects. It is difficult to them to concentrate on performance of a task or hearing of an explanation of the teacher. Having got used to a new situation, they will become quiet, balanced, attentive and disciplined soon again.

However in practice the transition period for such children is often saddened by remarks on behavior, negative estimation of answers at lessons, need of suppression of habitual desires, to submit to a rhythm, unusual for them, and the mode.

These

and other undesirable phenomena in behavior, working capacity, mood and interests of children in the period of the beginning of systematic training are explained by reorganization of a habitual way of life, usual difficulties of installation of new. Experts note that even in the conditions of good preliminary training of children for school, in the presence at them desires to study, okhotny visit of lessons, high level of speech and intellectual development, they difficult are given switching on new kinds of activity, accustoming to new requirements and conditions.

It occurs because the social status of the child, his place and a role in microsociety, a circle of contacts considerably changes. The new system of the relations, values, activity begins to develop intensively. The child should get used urgently to the mode of study, new to it, and rest, the long time to stay at rest, statics, instead of the habitual active movement, long to be in the enclosed space.

Even to the children who visited kindergarten should build at first anew the circle of contacts, “to win“ the place in new community. All this demands from the child of a certain tension, change of the developed stereotypes of behavior, style of the relations. As a result even at the most diligent and well prepared first graders at first nothing leaves. On the contrary - everything turns out awfully badly: pencils are scattered and break, the handle leaks, notebooks are soiled, books with a roar fall.

Success of the beginning of training at school in a certain measure is connected by

with the level of physical development of the child reached . The formation of the large and small motility corresponding to its age is very important. Imagine the first grader who to school did not seize skills of self-service, did not learn to put on, button, lace up independently boots, is not able to handle small and fragile objects. To it it is necessary not only to take out playful views of other children in a class, but also to suffer long, leading round sections, removing sticks, figures and letters. The work made an awkward hand will differ in untidiness, negligence.

process as acceptance of food can even affect school progress such, apparently, not connected with educational activity. The child who was accustomed in the childhood is with arrangements, any derivations from this vital act, connects food with game and an entertainment or shows the active resistance to a food. It applies the same manner then to food intellectual.

to Those children who to school did not go to kindergarten should study full self-service, independence at a lesson, in the dining room, a locker room and even in a toilet.

If first graders to school had no experience of independent performance of any tasks, instructions, duties, manifestation of endurance and persistence in achievement of the purpose, they with great difficulty manage to cope with escalating educational requirements and loadings. Here absence at the child of a habit and ability to overcome difficulties, to mobilize the forces will affect.

Such children do not watch the appearance, forget educational accessories, lose things. Gradually at them the inferiority complex, uncertainty in itself, the forces and opportunities begins to develop. From frustration that everything turns out incorrectly (in the absence of understanding and support from adults), at children interest in school falls, the desire to study vanishes.

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U of others, on the contrary, observes self-confidence, the easy relation to study, negligence to others. In the preschool childhood parents noted and highly appreciated the slightest progress of the child, carried them to his outstanding qualities. The slightest dissatisfaction of their desires, negative estimation of results of their work or answers, causes in them a rough protest, negative manifestations and acts. Externally they can seem successful, however they can have a distorted motivation to educational activity limiting personal development.

Readiness for training in a broad sense includes

not only the quantitative characteristic of a stock of knowledge and representations of the child, but also a level of development of the generalizing activity of thinking, ability to generalize and differentiate objects and the phenomena of world around. Development of this ability also happens gradually, in process of mastering experience uchebno - cognitive activity.

Very often first graders it is difficult for p to solve problems of mathematics because children just are not able to imagine visually object of the reflection, those situations, objects and actions about which there is a speech. Insufficient life experience, small volume of visual representations, the taken roots wrong opinion on surrounding reality often are the reason of difficulties and the unsuccessful solution of educational tasks. To minimize these problems, in preschool years it is necessary to develop at children such qualities as inquisitiveness, activity, independence, keenness of mind.

of Children needs to teach to observe, compare, classify and systematize, to plan the activity. The prepared children are able to allocate an educational task, to choose ways of its decision. They are capable to search of ways for the best understanding of a training material and exact submission of that contents with which they deal at a lesson.

School training imposes on

all new requirements to of the speech, attention, memory . Mnemichesky tasks, new to them, are set for children: any learning, reproduction and processing of educational texts and tasks. Psychologists note, for example, that success of digestion of material on Russian is in many respects connected with the accuracy of distribution of attention; training in reading demands ability to concentrate.

the Inability to remember quickly and to precisely reproduce a task, to listen and hear the teacher`s explanation, affects the general progress. Therefore it is so important to watch the child, to notice his interests and tendencies, abilities and restrictions.

Unsuccessful school start leads

to to violation of mood, decrease in a self-assessment, and even to deterioration in health of the child . He becomes irritable (or sluggish, indifferent), sleeps badly, refuses food. At part of children during adaptation various somatic deviations can be noted: the increased temperature, a headache, belly-aches, exacerbations of chronic diseases. All this should be considered as manifestation and a consequence of the settled and too prolonged alarm, emotional discomfort, fears.

If in time not to pay attention to difficulties of children and not to give effective help during adaptation, problems in training will accrue more and more. If to leave the child without parental attention and correct professional support, adaptation period to new conditions, new people, to qualifying standards drags on, its manifestations gain resistant negative character. In recent years sharp increase in number of children with heavy violations of process of adaptation to school, with the expressed school difficulties is noted.