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On mushrooms of

Summer in the heat. And even if you not on holiday then during week-end there is a wish to leave the stuffy city melting on the sun asphalt, the air mixed with ashes, dust and a heat. Even the conditioner at work does not rescue from dreams of the real, but not artificial cool. In total. A time on the nature. In the wood. To water. Or perhaps for mushrooms?

Mushrooms. What or who are they?

One of miracles, one of riddles of the organic world, invaluable gift of the nature are mushrooms.

Mushrooms are organisms which differ from plants not only on appearance, but also on a chemical composition, development and a way of life in the nature. Therefore in system of the organic world the special place is allocated to them. Now most of scientists separate them from plants and animals and carry to absolutely independent kingdom of live organisms.

the Majority of us under the word “mushrooms“ imagine “legs with hats“ which the sizes, a form and coloring are evident at once. However the body of mushrooms is made by those dense fibers which are underground and are called a mycelium or a mycelium (from Greek mykes - a mushroom). And fruit bodies which we see on a surface represent only the reproducing bodies of mushrooms where disputes are formed. Dispute happens to the help asexual reproduction of mushrooms.

, except nutrients from organic materials, to mushrooms the corresponding temperature and humidity is necessary for

For growth. It is the best of all as show long supervision, the fruit body of a mushroom develops at a windless calm weather. Light is not important for mushrooms. Many mushrooms grow in the places which are absolutely deprived of light.

the body of mushrooms, or a mycelium, being in the soil or in other nutrient medium, expands in all directions. Life expectancy of a mycelium is various. If at some types it makes only one year, then at others several decades last. The mycelium of many shlyapochny mushrooms in the soil disperses luchevidno around at which edges fruit bodies are formed. The mycelium circle expands every year, and its radius increases. Many mushroom pickers use this knowledge. Having found several close growing mushrooms, they try to count this circle, and then collect rich “catch“ literally in one place.

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Mushroom places

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  1. In mountain coniferous forests occur among edible fungi first of all kinds of cepe, saffron milk caps, chanterelles, slippery jacks, russulas and a set of other, not such popular types.
  2. In the coniferous or deciduous forests of the foothills from edible fungi mainly meet: honey agarics, pine form of cepe, champignons and many others.
  3. the Low oak woods are rich with such species of mushrooms as an oak form of cepe, a dubovika, poddubnik, birch mushrooms, mossiness mushrooms, chanterelles and different types of edible russulas.
  4. can be found
  5. In the low pine woods first of all greenfinches, saffron milk caps and champignons.
  6. can find
  7. different types of morels, aspen mushrooms, krasnogolovik In the crude meadow woods, etc.
  8. In the deciduous woods of the southern areas boletuses and cepes meet more often.

Krom of the woods, it is possible to go to look for mushrooms on meadows. Here you will find, besides a set slozhnoproiznosimy and hardly names famous to you, - meadow champignons and meadow honey agarics. The same species of mushrooms grow in gardens and parks.

Where to mushroom?

of the Universal recipe when and where to mushroom, generally does not exist. Each mushroom picker has treasured places where he goes many years, assured of what surely there something will find. Therefore main council: take with yourself the person who already was, collected, knows and is able! Or ask that it took you with itself(himself)! But if you appear in the unfamiliar place, without skilled guide and nobody will advise you where and what mushrooms to look for, then, most likely, incidentally all of you will find something. Because mushrooms grow practically everywhere! It is only necessary to know types edible, let and not top-quality, mushrooms to return with rich “catch“.

If you the resident of the capital, then to you it is only worth being chosen out of limits of a garden ring. Already you will find the woods in which mushrooms are practically everywhere in near Moscow area!

When to mushroom?

can be mushroomed almost all the year round though the main season of collecting proceeds since May until the end of November. However if winter not really cold, then and in January - February it is possible to find some species of mushrooms which will decorate your table.

How to gather mushrooms?

I here you with a bast basket in the wood. What to begin with? From the suburb? Or to go deep into a thicket? Most of inexperienced mushroom pickers, following the known proverb:“ Mushrooms look for - on the wood ransack“, directs in depth of the wood. The skilled mushroom picker will begin with an edge.

different methods of search of mushrooms Are.“ The comb“ is the route reminding a hairbrush with teeths of identical length. At “a comb with a ledge“ teeths of the different sizes. The “wave“, “zigzag“ and “spring“ methods speak for themselves, they are convenient on an edge and along the forest road. If at least one of them yields positive result, it is possible to make “wave“, “zigzag“ or “spring rounds“ more squeezed not to pass mushrooms.

If the group of collectors goes to the wood, it is necessary to plan the directions in advance and to choose ways of search of mushrooms. It is the best of all to break in pairs easily to communicate, without interfering with each other. Surveying an edge of the wood or a strip along the road, one mushroom picker goes a course of “the stretched spring“, another - “zigzag“ or “wave“, places going deep into the wood. On a function glade are distributed too: one surveys the central part of a glade, another - its suburbs. The group broken in pairs forms a chain in which each person is connected with two. It will allow to avoid wandering on the wood and to keep an eye on each other.

process of collecting mushrooms looks approximately so. The mushroom should be taken for a leg and a rotary motion, having shaken it, to pull out. If a leg fragile and fragile, hook a knife or fingers. It is desirable to cover the remained pole with earth or a moss that the mycelium in vain did not dry. Before putting a mushroom in a basket, clear it of the remains of the earth and dirt. Remove a mucous thin skin from hats of slippery jacks right there, on the place that slime did not soil other mushrooms. Sometimes mushroom pickers cut off mushrooms a knife. Scientists consider that both ways are correct. But if the unfamiliar mushroom got to you and you decided to show it to the expert, then pull out a mushroom entirely, for its exact identification.

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For collecting mushrooms best of all will be suitable a basket from rods, but not plastic bags or buckets which do not pass air.

the Gathered mushrooms stack

in a basket thus: down firm and large, and soft or fragile put from above that they did not break and did not crumble.

Ethics of the mushroom picker

Collecting mushrooms demand a certain standard of behavior. Ethics of the mushroom picker are not only equipment and a way of collecting mushrooms, but also the correct relation to environment.

Should gather only those mushrooms which will be eaten. Mushrooms which are not of interest to you should not be touched. Perhaps, they will be broken by somebody another, come after you.

If you incidentally cut off not that mushroom (or it was worm-eaten), - do not throw it on the earth, and put on it a knot or a branch better. The mushroom will dry - forest inhabitants - a squirrel, an elk or birds will regale on it. Or will disseminate such mushroom disputes, and the new harvest will grow. A bad habit - to force down mushrooms legs or a stick, even poisonous - fly agarics, toadstools. In the nature everything is interconnected, and destruction even of poisonous mushrooms leads to violation of balance in the nature.

Ethics of the real mushroom pickers - unwritten. In the wood it is necessary to behave quietly and to try to be imperceptible. The presence not to intrude upon leisure and not to frighten wild animals. One of rules: saw other mushroom picker who obviously attacked mushrooms, - do not start talking to him, do not distract and the more so do not begin to look for right there, nearby. Do not approach at all! Bypass it a storonka and go to yourself further - in hope for own good luck...

of Signs of the real and artificial mushroom pickers - have enough. For example, if gait at it free, it seems as walking if he in addition swings the basket or a bag, then before you - the fan. The real mushroom picker goes slowly, the stolen step, the head is hung, hands - one with a knife, another with a basket - too are lowered along a trunk and hang as if is weakened, but in constant readiness...

Poisonous mushrooms

Unfortunately, mushrooms are a source not only pleasures, but also troubles.

Some people in general avoid mushrooms only because among them also poisonous come across. Poisoning most often occurs when the person is not able to distinguish mushrooms or does it carelessly. Poisonous mushrooms which are the reason of a deadly or serious poisoning, not so much, in comparison with edible or harmless fungi. Therefore all who want to gather mushrooms for food have to learn to distinguish at least 20 - 25 species of poisonous mushrooms which can cause dangerous poisonings. It is always better to collect only a few species of mushrooms which you well know. Here sayings are pertinent: “It is better less and better“ and “It is not sure - do not take!“

Unfortunately, practical recommendations how to distinguish an edible fungi from poisonous, do not exist. In the past there was a belief that the silver device or onions in contact with poisonous mushrooms will turn black, but it is incorrect. It is also incorrect that all poisonous mushrooms have bitter taste and an unpleasant smell. On the contrary, the most dangerous poisonous mushrooms as, for example, a pale toadstool, a fly agaric panterny or a rozovoplastinnik poisonous, have almost no smell and taste. Incorrectly as well the statement that the mushrooms picked by insects and snails - are not poisonous. Poisonings can also cause the known edible types if to use old fruit bodies of mushrooms. The spoiled mushrooms contain poisons which are formed as a result of activity of bacteria.

At any symptoms of poisoning with mushrooms needs to call the doctor at once. It is recommended to drink a lot of liquid which will dilute toxic agents in an organism. But the most effective remedy is washing of a stomach (to drink 1,5 - 2 liters of water and to press on a language root).

How not to get lost in the wood

Each mushroom picker has to be able to be guided in the wood. The most reliable way not to get lost - to have the card and a compass, to be able to use them. It is possible to define sides of the horizon by the sun, and the knowledge of signs helps to orient on the district. Mosses and lichens usually grow from North side of a trunk aloone of the standing tree. The krone of such tree is more magnificent and more dense from South side.

At a birch smooth, white, pure bark from South side. Pitch on trunks of pines, fir-trees, cedars acts from South side more plentifully.

Ant hills usually settle down from South side of trees and bushes, and the southern slope of an ant hill always flat.

of Berry and fruits redden (turn yellow) from South side earlier. Will help to remember the road to the house, the route or the highway of a sign too - a glade, the road bend unusual penek, lonely or something a different tree etc.

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we Are equipped with

in the wood!

Clothes and footwear of the mushroom picker have to be convenient, not constrain movements. Gathering mushrooms, you should bend, squat, get up - and not once! It is desirable, knowing a weather forecast, to provide protection against wind and a rain. It is very important to take care of footwear to avoid rubbing of legs. The best footwear - sports, raznoshenny. It is good to enclose felt or felt insoles in boots or gym shoes.

Personal equipment:

  • sports suits,
  • of a jacket,
  • of a windbreaker,
  • of a sneaker,
  • bast baskets,
  • knives,
  • means from mosquitoes,
  • a compass,
  • of a match,
  • a whistle.

If you by car, not superfluous is to take with itself:

  • a folding little table and stools,
  • plastic buckets for water,
  • polyurethane foam rugs,
  • a volleyball,
  • of a racket,
  • charcoal.

Food:

  • sandwiches,
  • greens,
  • vegetables,
  • fruit,
  • water,
  • juice.

Forest dangers and sights

the Wood requires attention. It is necessary not only look under legs, but also to watch expensive, surrounding situation, trying not to stumble about roots and a windbreak, not to be hooked for a last year`s grass, not to get into a hole and not to be scratched by a sharp and biting branch. In a campaign for mushrooms often it is necessary to pass the river. In this case it is impossible to forget popular wisdom:“ Look before you leap“. The most correct in this situation is a search of the ford which use local population and animals. It is not difficult to determine it by the path or a path conducting to water and proceeding on the opposite coast.

pincers are found In some areas. In some - mosquitoes commit excesses. And which - where the real predators - foxes, wolves, etc. are found. Someone will meet a squirrel in the wood, and someone will be able to see an elk. But these details about local fauna - dangerous and not really - you for certain know. They depend on that place, where do you live.

Still should be

careful in marshy places as bogs - are very artful and are not always from far away distinguishable.

For certain you will find

a set of various berries in the wood. In the woods situated near Moscow, for example, still there is a lot of raspberry, blueberry, blackberry, wild strawberry. It will be interesting to pick berries together with children; perhaps, this occupation will please them more, than collecting mushrooms. Tell children about various trees that you are surrounded, about flowers. The meeting with an ant hill can become the real revelation, sometimes even for adults. They are the different size, but often will be above your kid, and therefore will seem to it huge!

Time outdoors, in the wood, flies quickly. Calculate forces. You watch the sun. If you arrived to the wood since morning as the most real skilled mushroom pickers, then by noon (and if you with children, then earlier) it is necessary to find the vacation spot. Any glade which attracted to you can become it. If you decide to make fire, then try to find the place with an old campfire. In the wood it is forbidden to use matches without extreme need and to kindle a fire. Do not forget to extinguish fire carefully: the majority of wildfires happens from - for negligent attitude of tourists to fires. Garbage, banks, glass and polymeric, remained after a lunch, it is impossible to dig in in the wood. They need to be carried away with themselves and to throw out in a dustbin.

On a halt can be had a bite quickly the itself taken with itself. To play on a glade a ball. To sort the mushrooms gathered by all family, having spread out them it is correct in baskets. And “to award with honourable prizes pro the biggest mushroom“, “most of all mushrooms“, “the most unusual mushroom“ etc. It is possible to build hand-made articles from the available incidental material (acorns, branches, cones, snags and so forth). It is possible to collect bouquets from flowers. Everything that will be prompted to you by your imagination. And, at last, to admire the nature!

Around you yet not ruined nature. Beautiful birch wood. Stop. Admire. Receive a charge of cheerfulness, energy and good a spiritniya from the sun and clean air.

the Wood gives you something material in the form of mushrooms and berries, but also something imperceptible and inexplicable. And on a forest glade there is a wish to dance and sing, inhaling sweet and spicy aroma of a forest cool. There is a wish not to think of anything. To be dissolved in this forest round dance and to rejoice, like the child, this long-awaited and unintentional, but such desired and necessary meeting...

Processing of mushrooms of the house

needs to Process mushrooms at once as soon as you came home, so far they still fresh. They should be cleared, cut carefully for drying, to prepare for conservation or for frying, suppression or cooking. The cleared and cut fresh mushrooms can be stored in the refrigerator, but they at once should be prepared and eaten as soon as they are taken out from the refrigerator.

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Mushroom recipes

Cepes with tomatoes

of 500 g of cepes, 3 fresh tomatoes, 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil, 1 bulb, 2 ~ 3 segments of garlic,
2 tablespoons of breadcrumbs, salt, pepper to taste, parsley greens, 3 tablespoons of grated cheese.

In large strong hats of cepes to cut out part of pulp from the middle. This pulp and legs of mushrooms small to chop up, fry on oil together with chopped onions, to fill with garlic, salt, pepper, breadcrumbs. To fry hats of mushrooms on oil. To cut tomatoes on circles and also to fry. In a frying pan to lay circles of tomatoes, on them to put the fried hats of mushrooms filled with forcemeat. To sprinkle mushrooms with grated cheese and to bake in an oven until cheese does not blush.