The dog is biting...
by What are dangerous to children stings of animals?
the Purpose of this article is not to fill young mother with dread before terrible diseases which sources can be domestic and wild animals. We want only to help to be ready to any unusual situation connected with risk for human life. It will be a question of those moments when could bite the person (it is frequent - children) or bit an animal. And it is extremely dangerous by a possibility of development of rage - an illness which at the moment the mankind did not learn to treat, but who moleno and needs to be warned.
Rage (Rabies, hydrophobia Lyssa - hydrophobia, hydrophobia) - a sharp viral infectious disease which both animals, and people and which causative agent is transferred in the contact way as a result of a sting or an oslyuneniye of the injured mucous membranes or integuments are ill. The disease is characterized by the progressing defeat of the central nervous system deadly to the person.Rage is widespread
in the world. Annually in our country hundreds of cases of an illness among wild are registered (foxes, raccoon dogs, wolves, hedgehogs, etc.) and house (dogs, cats, cattle, horses) animal and more than 10 fatal cases of hydrophobia among people. Practically in all regions of the Russian Federation activization of the natural centers (territories within which the microorganism lives in natural environment) of rage of animals is noted. A source of rage is the wild animal who caught in such centers, and also a pet who was attacked from other sick animal. From sick animals there is infection of the person.disease Symptoms at animals
Duration of the incubatory period (i.e. the period preceding emergence of symptoms of a disease) at animals makes
from a week to several months (sometimes - years), but in 5 - 10 days prior to displays of an illness the animal is infectious. the Characteristic symptom of a disease of animals in an initial stage should consider by
change of behavior: the spiteful animal becomes tender, unjustly brisk, tries to lick the owner in a face; kind - angry, irritable, does not go for call of the owner, hides in dark corners. The animal refuses favourite food, but swallows inedible objects (a tree, stones, etc.) hypersensibility to light, noise is sometimes noted. A little body temperature increases.
If to speak about wild animals, then for the diseased with such change: the healthy wild animal never voluntarily will go to the person and will escape in any attempt to come nearer. The initial stage of a disease is replaced by the second - an excitement stage at which irritability of an animal increases, there is an aggression: the sick dog attacks other animals and people, refuses food and water, bark becomes hoarse, swallowing is complicated, strengthened salivation. Further the third comes, paralytic, the stage very characteristic a species of an animal: wool is tousled, the lower jaw droops, language drops out, saliva follows from a mouth. On 8 - 10 - y put an animal perishes.
the Course of a disease at the person
the Susceptibility of people to rage is not general (i.e. not everyone who contacted to a sick animal gets sick) and is defined by the general condition of a human body, its immunity, and also the place of a sting. From several hours to several days the virus is in the place of introduction from where promptly extends on nervous fibers and reaches the central nervous system. Stings to the area of the person, neck and hands are especially dangerous (see the table).
the Incubatory period at people makes 7 - 90 days, sometimes - year and more. Various duration of the incubatory period is connected with the place of a sting (the shortest incubatory period at stings in the head, hands; the longest - at stings in feet), age bitten (at children is shorter, than at adults), a species of the bitten animal, the size and depth of a wound, a dose of the activator which got to a wound.
In a clinical picture of rage at people are allocated by the next periods: initial (depressive), excitement period, paralytic period.
the Initial stage lasts 1 - 3 day. The first symptoms of an illness are found in the place of a sting: the healing wound or a hem swells up a little again, reddens, the itch, pain develops. There is an indisposition, a headache, dryness in a mouth, loss of appetite. Appear hypersensibility to visual and acoustical irritants, sometimes feeling of constraint in a breast and a throat. Body temperature to 37,0 - 38,0 °C increases. Patients feel baseless scare, alarm, the sleep is interrupted. Nausea, vomiting, perspiration join.
Criteria of severity of stings depending on the place and nature of damages
|of Severity of stings||of the Place of damages||of Nature of damages||of Category of an animal|
|of Heavy||the Head, a face, a neck, fingers of hands||Multiple or extensive||Wild; sick with the established diagnosis; it is killed or disappeared and it was not investigated; put unprovoked stings to people|
|of of Average weight||the Brush||Superficial single scratches||Healthy but living in the unsuccessful district; incorrectly contained|
|of Easy||the Forearm, a shoulder, a trunk, the lower extremities||Single superficial scratches||Healthy, correctly contained; put under veterinary observation|
In 2 - 3 days there comes the excitement period . Indifference and a dejectedness are replaced by concern. Disorders of breath and swallowing appear and progress. In attempt of drink, at the sight of water, its murmur, splash, even a verbal mention of it there is a hydrophobia attack (feeling of horror and painful spasms of muscles of a throat and throat). Attacks can be provoked by the air movement (aero phobia), bright light (photophobia), a loud sound (akustofobiya). In 1 - 2 day the plentiful painful salivation appears. High temperature. Accrue warmly - vascular and respiratory frustration, there are painful spasms. Patients become aggressive. Attacks are followed by obscuring of consciousness with development of acoustical and visual hallucinations. At the time of an attack cardiac arrest and breath is possible.
Duration of the period of excitement makes 2 - 3 days, is rare - till 6 days. If in the period of an attack of the patient does not perish, the illness for 1 - 3 day to death passes into a terminal (paralytic) stage . It is characterized by calm, improvement of a state. Breath becomes more free. Disappear fear, there is an opportunity to eat and drink. Along with it slackness, apathy increase (detachment from world around), the increased salivation, paralyzes, various on localization, develop. The death occurs from paralysis of heart or the respiratory center in a brain. The general duration of an illness makes 3 - 7 days, in rare instances - till 2 - 3 weeks.
of Specific therapy of rage does not exist. It is possible to facilitate a condition of the victim only. The patient is isolated in separate chamber (boxing). The service personnel have to work in the protective clothes excluding oslyuneny skin and mucous membranes; at hit of the patient`s saliva on them the emergency prevention is shown by antirabichesky preparations. The forecast at the developed illness adverse. There are no reliable cases of recovery from rage. In this regard prevention of rage gains extremely important value in fight against this disease. It includes fight against infection sources (rabid animals) and the prevention of an illness at people.
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Special attention - to children!from
children therefore it is necessary to carry out constantly with them explanatory work suffer From stings animals more often and to try to avoid unnecessary contacts with animal, especially wild and/or neglected. It is not necessary to play with unfamiliar dogs, cats and other animals. It is not necessary to select at the dacha, in the wood etc. wild animals. Hedgehogs and small rodents can also be rage carriers. The wrong or inadequate behavior of the child who owing to age will not be able correctly to assess a situation can lead any and furthermore a sick animal to aggression. It is better not to select homeless vagrant or sick animals, but if took, then to find an opportunity in a short space of time to impart this animal and to show it to the veterinarian. It is not necessary to take an animal on a summer summer season: having thrown out it, you increase risk of developing of rage in this region. It is better not to send children till 12 - 14 years independently to walk a dog, especially if it is an animal of large and/or aggressive breed. The child can not cope with it, and in case of an unusual situation will not be able adequately to explain an event essence.Should consider
that the child can forget and not tell parents about insignificant damages, especially if contact was with externally healthy animal during a short period.
What to do in case of a sting to animals?If the child or the adult bit
, scratched, oslyunit any animal, even externally healthy and furthermore neglected or wild or if there are suspicions that it is rabid, it is necessary to wash out immediately intensively a wound within 10 minutes water with soap which will wash away animal saliva, to apply a sterile bandage. After that in the most short time it is necessary to address to the nearest emergency station or to any medical institution (policlinic, hospital, a medical aid station). It is whenever possible necessary to collect a maximum of data on the bitten animal.
of Affected persons in emergency station is examined, ask with what animal and under what circumstances they contacted as the animal behaved at the same time that provoked his attack, domestic this animal or the victim met him for the first time, etc. In parallel with it carry out processing of a wound, with washing by its soap solution and processing by the concentrated spirit solution of iodine.Should note
that edges of wounds after stings do not excise surgical tools and on them do not impose seams as it leads to an additional travmatization of fabrics and shortening of the incubatory period of rage (if nevertheless there was infection), except for cases when surgical intervention is necessary according to vital indications. Suture is shown only in the following cases:
- at extensive wounds - several directing skin seams after preliminary processing of a wound;
- according to cosmetic indications (imposing of skin seams on wounds of a face);
- proshivany the bleeding vessels for a stop of external bleeding.
As parts of the earth could get to a wound, the victim enter serum for prevention of tetanus 1 .Purpose of a course of inoculations against rage is defined by
on the basis of clinical and epidemiological yielded, results of laboratory research of the bitten animal. Depending on it the victim of an inoculation or do not appoint at all, or appoint according to conditional and unconditional indications.
of the Inoculation are not appointed at small stings if bitten already took root against rage, irrespective of a limitation period. Them do not appoint also at single superficial stings (except the head and fingers) in the district, safe on incidence of rage; at stings the imparted animal; at an oslyuneniye of the intact integuments if the bitten animal at this moment was healthy (the reference of the veterinary worker). However anyway the animal has to be under supervision within 10 days. If during this term at an animal the disease of rage is established or suspected, bitten at once begin to conduct a course of inoculations against rage. Inoculations do not appoint also at stings of cold blooded animals (snakes, lizards, turtles), at the use of thermally processed milk and meat of animals, rabid. At stings poultry of an inoculation appoint only in case the bird is obviously rabid.by
At stings animals healthy by sight behind whom it is possible to establish 10 - day supervision appoint a conditional course of inoculations (2 - 4 injections) which dosage and duration are defined depending on localization and weight of stings.by
When at the bitten animal clinically or laboratory the diagnosis of rage is established, and also in cases when the diagnosis could not be established (the animal disappeared, the corpse is destroyed etc.), and also at stings of wild birds bitten appoint an unconditional course of inoculations.
As are done by inoculations?
apply To active immunoprevention dry inactivated (partially or completely deprived of activity) the cultural antirabichesky vaccine (CAV) - RABIVAK - VNUKOVO - 32 or the dry inactivated concentrated cleared cultural antirabichesky vaccine (CCCAV), and also antirabichesky immunoglobulin (LEAGUES). There are detailed schemes lechebno - preventive immunization for each vaccine, the considering weights of a sting and nature of contact with animals (an oslyuneniye, an otsarapaniye, etc.) given about an animal, etc.
the Course lechebno - preventive immunization of the person of KAV makes 21 days with a revaccination on 10 - y, 20 - y and 35 - y day after the termination of a basic course (at heavy damages). The course of immunization of KOKAB makes 6 injections: the first injection is entered in day of the address, further on one - on 3 - y, 7 - y, 14 - y, 30 - y, 90 - y days. The vaccine is entered into a deltoid muscle of a shoulder in a dose of 1,0 ml.
keeping of pets:
At stings in the head, hands, multiple stings of other localization, at any stings of wild carnivores - foxes, raccoon dogs, wolves and so forth (i.e. in cases of high risk of a disease of rage) appoint the combined inoculation course antirabichesky 2 immunoglobulin and a vaccine.If the victim to a sting was imparted by
against rage according to the full scheme and it has a sufficient level of protective proteins - antibodies (blood serums on the maintenance of antiviral antibodies conduct research), he is vaccinated according to the scheme 0 - 3 (the first injection is entered pass addresses, the second - on 3 - y day) without use of immunoglobulin.
After introduction of a vaccine in a human body there are after a while antibodies which destroy a rage virus. It is necessary for prevention of development of a disease that they appeared in enough as soon as possible.
Timely vaccination (in the first 2 - 3 hours after a sting) prevents developing of an illness in 97 - 99% of cases.
Introduction of an antirabichesky vaccine can be followed in some cases by normal vaktsinalny local or general reaction. Local reaction is characterized by insignificant hypostasis, redness, an itch and increase in lymph nodes. The general reaction is characterized by a slight headache, dizziness, nausea, slight increase of temperature.
of Contraindications for introduction of an antirabichesky vaccine after a sting does not exist. Pregnancy is not contraindication for medical immunization as the disease is too dangerous.
we Pay attention that rage inoculations are carried out free of charge, irrespective of existence of the policy of obligatory medical insurance.
to Vaccinate all population against rage there is no need. A course of preventive immunization is conducted to the people who are professionally connected with risk of infection with rage (sobakolova, the staff of veterinary laboratories). Repeated immunization is recommended in year and further each three years if the person continues to stay in a zone of high risk.in conclusion would like to tell
: everything depends only on us! Our health - not an exception. As well as with what responsibility we will treat ourselves, to the people and animals surrounding us, and the result will be such.