Horrors of our town or When you would know, from what litter...
“Dust - very small solid bodies of an organic or mineral origin weighed in air.
contains In one cubic centimeter of air: at top of Riga (Alps) 210 - 2000, in London (street air) to 116000, in Paris to 210000 particles of dust. Room air is even richer with dust (to 5,5 million particles in 1 cubic centimeter). In dust there are bacteria and other microorganisms“.
House dust contains about 150 thousand species of ticks, fibers of flax, cotton, mold mushrooms, dandruff of the person and pets, parts of glue from book covers. We bring to the house street dirt on footwear soles, the smallest fibers fly to the parties when we put on or undress, we make a bed, we sit down in a chair or on a sofa or we get up from them... Statistically, the average family “makes“ up to 1 kg of dust a month, and only one become lifeless skin each of us dumps up to 450 g a year. The main accumulators of dust in our houses are carpets and oriental carpets: as it is paradoxical, but the carpet of 3õ4 m in size may contain dust and dirt one and a half times more body weight and at the same time to look quite pure.
Fortunately, the modern equipment comes to the rescue of us: the good vacuum cleaner purifies air to a state when one its liter contains about hundred particles, i.e. the air which is coming out such vacuum cleaner is 100 times purer, than on the North Pole and is a million times purer, than in the city.You remember
how everything began?.
American Bissel Having an allergy to dust, the owner of shop of china, in 1876 invented a brush with replaceable nozzles and a bag for collecting dust, having laid thereby the foundation to creation of the vacuum cleaner.
In 1901 the American management of the railroads showed to public the car which blew dust from cars in the special container then as the legend says, to Booth disappointed with the fact that the fair part of dust flies by the thought came to the English engineer Hubert of Cecile to mind not to blow, and, on the contrary, to soak up dust: he kneelt and pulled in full lungs of dust from a carpet (it agrees other, more authentic version, Booth involved in himself through a handkerchief dust from an armrest of a chair on which sat).
The same year Booth produces the first working model of the vacuum cleaner which received the name “fyrchashchy Billey“: from - for the sizes this vacuum cleaner working at gasoline was located not in all rooms - it was parked near the house, and carpets for cleaning took out on the street.
B 1907 Murray Spangler working as the cleaner at tanning factory which owner was somebody William Huver (Hoover) invents the electric vacuum cleaner. The invention so was pleasant to Huver that, having redeemed from Spangler the patent for its production and since 1908, having converted factory, it started mass production of the Model O vacuum cleaner. Since then the brand of the Hoover vacuum cleaners is one of the most popular in the world. Unlike the vacuum cleaners released by competitors who weighed then about 50 kg engineers of Hoover finished the weight of the vacuum cleaners to 20. However the first vacuum cleaners were very expensive: those years the Ford car, for example, cost 300 dollars, and the Model O vacuum cleaner - 75. If to transfer these prices to modern scale, then such vacuum cleaner would cost about 7 - 8 thousand dollars today.with
B 1912 the founder of Electrolux firm Axel Venner - Gren, having replaced the air pump with the fan, loses vacuum cleaner weight to 14 kg, and several years later his company releases the Model V vacuum cleaner which, in fact, until the end of the 20th century is copied by most of producers of vacuum cleaners: the metal cylinder on castors with a flexible hose and replaceable nozzles.
Modern vacuum cleaners - what they?
the Most widespread in the world (about 70%) are vacuum cleaners of tower type (Upright) - such units are preferred by residents of Great Britain, North and South America and the Arab countries.
On the second place in popularity - the vacuum cleaners well familiar to us. Most of Europeans uses them, and in Russia such vacuum cleaners are preferred by nearly 100% of “pylesosovladelets“. These vacuum cleaners share on cylindrical (air passes in them along a competition and is thrown out of a nozzle behind) and vortex (in which air moves not directly, and twists).
the Beginning of the 21st century was marked by emergence of robots - vacuum cleaners which independently cope with cleaning. These vacuum cleaners have the built-in ultrasonic sensors which scan the room: the robot sees obstacles and goes round them, and shock-proof function protects the vacuum cleaner and furniture from undesirable breakages. If necessary it independently finds the road to the charger and recharges the accumulator, and the built-in gyroscopes help it to keep balance. By means of the timer you can set day and time of cleaning. Robots - vacuum cleaners are intended for daily cleaning, the rooms which from the first are strongly polluted with their help will not manage to be cleaned.
Not so long ago in the market there were so-called built in or central vacuum cleaners - the stationary, built-in buildings systems, consisting from:
- of the central power unit, supplied with the muffler (usually it is established on a balcony, a loggia, in the cellar), from which to all rooms the pipeline and a cable are laid;
- of air offtakes (they are laid under a floor, in suspended or false designs, decorative boxes);
- of sockets (or pneumatic valves - they, as a rule, are established at one height with electric and slot-hole sockets, established about a floor in strongly polluted places, for example, in a hall: once you sweep to them such litter and to press on a pedal, the garbage is sucked in at once);
- of pneumoexhausts (through which the smallest dust is removed) and
- of harvest hoses (length of 4,5 - 15 m).
To start operation of the built-in vacuum cleaner needs to connect a hose to the socket and it is possible to begin work. The system is silent - for example, you can safely vacuum in the room where the child sleeps. Certainly, such vacuum cleaners very and how simply it is desirable to guess, mount them at a stage of construction of your house or apartment cost expensive. And if you manage to finish neighbors on installation of the built-in vacuum cleaners in their apartments, then it is possible to save on the general power unit noticeably.
the Washing vacuum cleaner (which, by the way, can be used also for dry cleaning) consists of two tanks, one of which is intended for water with detergent, and another - for dirty water. At turning on of the vacuum cleaner water under pressure is pumped through a capillary in a nozzle and sprayed on the clearing surface. Water flow, getting into pile, washes away dirt then dirty water climbs a hose up and gathers in a tank - the utilizer. Optimum “objects“ for the washing vacuum cleaner is the tile and carpets on a latex basis.
From advantages of the washing vacuum cleaners needs to note the following: multifunctionality (with its help, for example, you can quickly clean the spilled liquid from a floor), high efficiency of damp cleaning in comparison with dry, an opportunity to moisten air indoors. From shortcomings it should be noted the bigger labor input by preparation of the vacuum cleaner for work and the subsequent its cleaning and drying, residual humidity in carpets and a furniture upholstery, need of purchase of expendables (special shampoo) and, certainly, quite high cost.
Technical characteristics of the vacuum cleaner
At each vacuum cleaner are a complex of technical characteristics which knowledge is useful to you at the choice of the model which is optimum suitable you.
- Power consumption - the size measured in watts (W) which shows how many the electric power consumes this vacuum cleaner.
- Depression - distinction between the external (atmospheric) pressure and pressure in the vacuum cleaner. It is measured in kilopascals (kPa).
- an air Consumption - amount of air which is pumped over via the vacuum cleaner in unit of time. It is measured in cubic meters a minute (m3/min.) or in liters a second (l / c).
- the Power of absorption is the work of depression on an air consumption measured in watts or aerovatta and which is the characteristic of overall performance of the vacuum cleaner. It is possible to reach the maximum power of absorption, smoothly changing a gap between a nozzle and the cleared surface. Therefore not the maximum power of absorption which is specified, as a rule, by producers in passport data of the vacuum cleaner, and the average effective power of absorption on a brush is important. This indicator is usually lower than the maximum power of absorption for 15 - 30%. It should be noted that the average power of absorption decreases in process of pollution and filling of a dust collector. It is considered that for usual cleaning there is enough power of absorption of 240 - 260 W, and when using additional energy-requiring devices (for example, a turboshchetok) power has to be higher - about 300 - 350 W.
Collections of aka dust dust collectors
Indisputable advantage of fabric bags to collecting dust - their reusability - often is fundamental for the consumer. Any bag for dust has to not only detain in itself garbage, but also pass through itself air. And so, fabric bags are capable to pass to 2/3 just collected dust which hangs in air, and falls by a floor and furniture after a while. Some producers let out fabric bags with antimicrobic impregnation thanks to what the disputes and bacteria which got to it cannot breed.the Paper dust collector works with
according to the same scheme, as well as fabric, i.e. dust detains and passes through itself an air stream. As a rule, paper bags are made of two layers of multiply paper which holds dust up to 3 in size - x microns. The first layer detains the main part of garbage, the second - the smallest particles of dust. In comparison with a fabric dust collector extent of purification of air increases by 50 - 100 times. Some firms (for example, Bosch) let out paper bags with an intermediate layer which not only catches small particles, but also prevents adhesion of layers that promotes maximum (to 95%) to efficiency of purification of air.
it is frequent the term “the filter S-a class“ occurs in descriptions of vacuum cleaners. So any filter capable to hold 99,97% of dust and more on particles over 0,3 microns in size is called.the Highest class of purification of air is reached by
by means of HEPA filters (High Efficiency Particle Absorption - highly effective detention of particles), representing the fibrous material put in the form of an accordion. They are made of paper and fiber glass (such filters are disposable) or of a special ftoroplast of ePTEE (such filters can be washed and reused). In total there are 5 classes HEPA of filters - H10, H11, H12, H13 and H14: the class is higher, the quality of a filtration of air is better.
In some vacuum cleaners dust from air separates not only by means of the filter, but also other ways. First of all, it is about vacuum cleaners of cyclonic type in which at a zakrutka of a stream of air in a cylindrical or conic cavity the vortex effect at which dust due to centrifugal force is taken out from an air stream is reached. Consumers in such vacuum cleaners are attracted by a possibility of visual control of filling of the container (in the majority of vacuum cleaners it is made of transparent plastic), simplicity of extraction and cleaning. In many models of cyclonic vacuum cleaners in addition to the container for collecting dust also the filter of thin cleaning is installed (HEPA H12 or HEPA H13).
Alternative to vacuum cleaners with a dust collector or the container for collecting dust are devices with so-called aqua - the filter (not to confuse to the washing vacuum cleaner!) . During the operation of such vacuum cleaner air passes through a sheet of water. Parts of dust become wet, grow heavy and fall by a dust collector bottom, and air comes to light. A lack of such vacuum cleaners - big dimensions and weight, need of performance of all complex of works (water gulf / discharge, washing and drying) even after small cleaning.Who is lovelier than
to an ear of all?
From all household appliances the vacuum cleaner is, perhaps, the most noisy. Strangely enough, most of the Russian consumers with mistrust belong to quietly working vacuum cleaners: having got used since the childhood to a roar of “Rockets“ and “Saturnov“, we perceive the low-noise vacuum cleaner as faulty.
the Noise level of the vacuum cleaner depends on its power, the used nozzle, type of a floor covering, a dimension of the room and other factors. A combination of low noise level and a high rate on collecting dust - a difficult task. Efficiency of cleaning in the big apartment depends more on depression which can create the vacuum cleaner inside, and also from the speed of an air stream via the vacuum cleaner, namely this stream and is one of the main sources of noise.
the Champion on noiselessness is the Ultra Silencer vacuum cleaner from Electrolux: the noise level made by it is equal to 72 dB(A) (on average this “vacuum-cleaning“ indicator fluctuates in the range from 77 to 81 dB(A)).different are necessary to
of the Brush
Modern vacuum cleaners are completed with various nozzles 1 by means of which you will be able to clean the dust which hid in the most secluded corners of your house:the slot-hole nozzle is intended to
- of for cleaning of curved surfaces, furniture corners; the nozzle for upholstered furniture is necessary for
- for cleaning of sofas, chairs of curtains, etc.; the nozzle with a soft brush is applied by
- to cleaning of the elements of decorative finishing demanding the delicate address, for example, of baguettes;
- of an electrobrush are supplied with the electric motor bringing into rotation the roller with solid pile (frequency of rotation of the roller, thus, does not depend on the speed of an air stream); at the Miele vacuum cleaners in these brushes also illumination lamps are built in that facilitates cleaning under sofas, beds and in other dark places;
- in turboshchetka the roller rotates the turbine which, in turn, is set in motion by a stream of the air coming to it; > it is convenient to li to collect by
- by means of of triangular nozzles dust in room corners;
- besides, some firms complete vacuum cleaners with special nozzles for cleaning of carpets (for example, Sani nozzle - punsh from LG is intended on fabric cleanings - striking on upholsteries frequent blows with the roller, it deletes from it the eaten dust).