Here it was pleasant to Tolstoy of
Two hundred years ago Khamovniki was prestigious dachas
Khamovniki, one may say, the center of Moscow Today: A garden ring absolutely nearby, to the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour no distance. And when Lev Tolstoy in 1882 bought in these parts the house and lodged with a family, everything looked absolutely here differently: quiet city suburb, meadows, kitchen gardens... It appear we in Khamovniki at the beginning of the last century, easily could meet the herd of cows going from a pasture.
“Tower of Pisa“ on Komsomol
the Hallmark of Khamovniki - church, wonderful, similar to a painted toy, at the beginning of Komsomolsky Avenue. If attentively to look narrowly at a tent belltower, it is possible to notice that it slightly bent as if in imitation the well-known Italian tower. Weavers of the Hamovny settlement in honor of the heavenly patron - the Prelate Nikolay built church at the end of the XVII century on own means. In those days the temple stood in the middle of the fields and meadows continuing extensive Ostozhye.
the Handicraftsmen weaving the special, highly appreciated linen cloth began to lodge here long since. In old times in Russia the word “boor“ meant “flax“, and weavers were called by “Khamovniki“. On the coat of arms of the area and today the blue flower of flax - an emblem of weavers flaunts. Of the past of these places remind also white stone chambers of the monarchic Hamovny yard on Lev Tolstoy Street. At excavation in the building found a set of naboyny boards by means of which on fabric the color pattern was manually printed.
of the Master - Khamovniki, on the one hand, was exclusive “estate“, with another - was actually on position of serfs. They were assessed with low taxes, exempted from many duties, but at the same time had no right to move from the settlement, to give daughters and sisters in marriage to “strangers“. It was incredibly difficult to be defined on a residence in Hamovnuyu the settlement - it was required to submit the petition to the tsar.
When barracks yet was not built
B 1709 Peter I founded the country`s first state linen factory in the Hamovny settlement. Now on its place one more local sight - the Khamovniki barracks is located. Earlier in Russia there was a so-called “postoyny duty“: troops were billeted in private houses. Probably, it was pleasant to not all owners when at their place on a lodging for the night the company of soldiers settled down. Only since the end of the XVIII century in Moscow began to build barracks. In the yard of the house No. 19 on Komsomolsky Avenue the building of the Guardroom sustained in style of classicism remained. Nearby - the well-known Patronage house acquired under apartments of officers (Komsomol, 13). Once in it there took place secret meetings of the decembrist “Union of rescue“, and today the Russian Writers` Union and Pegasus restaurant popular not only among writers located there. The complex of barracks was placed on both sides of the present prospectus, and in the middle there was a parade-ground for front exercises of troops.
Rublyovka of the XVIII century
Komsomolsky Avenue and Frunzenskaya Embankment belong to the most elite districts of the city also today. And two hundred years ago Khamovniki - a picturesque green oasis - from the point of view of prestigiousness did not concede in near Moscow area to present Rublevskoye Highway. How the Moscow nobility liked to lodge here, it is possible to judge by names of streets. Obolensky Lane is obliged by the name to the local house owner - the prince Obolensky, Yazykovsky Lane - to the member of Palace commission of inquiry Yazykov, Usachev Street - to the rich merchant Usachev living here. To have giving in Khamovniki for elite of that time was a sign of a good form. Not without reason already since the end of the XVII century country manors with regular parks, ponds, constructions appear here. As, for example, the estate of princes Trubetskoy in Holzunov Lane - a monument sadovo - park art. There is the only wooden farmstead house in Moscow - the former princely giving. There is both a park, and a pond with bridges, and ancient footpaths on which as assure, Pushkin once walked. Now there in addition the children`s town, a menagerie, biological station are open...
B to other, even more well-known Khamovniki estate the house museum of Lev Tolstoy is placed today. However, in recent years foreigners go to excursions generally here. Our compatriots - of course, from what is richer - visit night club with restaurant and bowling on the opposite side of the street far more willingly.
not beer Ruins people...
Tolstoy, is told, quite often dropped in on the brewery which is two steps away from the estate for tasting of local production. This oldest Russian beer factory founded in 1863 by the merchant Vlas Yaroslavshchev - one more pride of Khamovniki. About twenty years ago, at the time of the most severe beer deficiency, at plant the little shop where it was always possible to buy the freshest Zhigulyovsk worked. Today here the beer restaurant is open - however, the people not to surprise with this luxury any more.
A few years ago across Moscow rumors spread that the historical beer factory is wanted to be closed. The public was indignant, the prefecture of TsAO had to promise officially that the enterprise will not be touched. And here the known factory “Red Rose“ which was in the neighbourhood, really, closed. Decided that it is unreasonable to use the expensive territory in the downtown under production shops. After reconstruction in cases of “A red rose“ offices of architectural bureaus, showroom, shops, business - the center were placed.
About Khamovniki the story could turn out much more long: this area incorporated a lot of the most interesting streets and sights. Agree, Volhonka, Ostozhenka with Prechistenka and the Novodevichy Convent deserve the separate story.