Rus Articles Journal

Twins: from conception till the birth of

Pregnancy and the birth of the child are always a miracle, unusual gift. And when two are expected at once? And three? Not without reason twins and their parents so draw attention of people around - sometimes enthusiastic, sometimes sympathetic. This really unusual occurrence. Twins make about 2% of all newborns, and triplets - only 2% of all twins. And before becoming the happy owner of a double carriage, it is necessary to go a long way of incubation of special, “non-standard“ pregnancy.

of Children, been born as a result of polycarpous pregnancy, is called twins. Besides, it is often possible to hear the word “twins“ by which in popular speech call “unlike“ twins.

As it turns out?

Twins are two types. Dizygotic (dvuyaytsovy, not identical) twins develop from two impregnated ova. At the same time in some cases simultaneous maturing of two or more ova happens in one or in both ovaries. The third way of an origin of dvuyaytsovy twins is possible; fertilization of two and more ova which ripened in one follicle. It is interesting that the difference between time of conception of dizygotic twins can sometimes make from several hours to several days. Dvuyaytsovy twins are genetically similar no more than ordinary brothers and sisters; they approximately are to identical frequency same-gender and different floors.

Monogerminal (uniovular, identical) twins turn out at fertilization of the only ovum one spermatozoon. Then the formed zygote begins to share as usual, a nose interesting feature; as a result of division independent embryos are formed subsequently. The reasons of development of this process by science still are definitely not established from - for difficulties of the biochemical mechanisms regulating cell division. Such twins are almost exact copies of each other though, certainly, insignificant distinctions between them all - is. In initially identical DNA of each embryo there can be different mutations. The second reason of distinctions - not genetic influences, for example features of areas of a female uterus or influence of other factors. Monogerminal twins meet 5 times less often than dizygotic. Among monogerminal twins boys prevail.

the Separate subject - Siamese twins. So the uniovular twins who in different degree grew together with each other are called. An alleged cause - late splitting of a germ on independent forms. The later it occurs, the risk is higher. Siamese twins - extremely unusual occurrence. They are born once on 10 million childbirth.

Many conceptions of twins do not come to an end with the birth. 10 - 12 people who had a twin in mother`s womb are the share of each been born couple of twins.

Can plan the birth of twins?

in the Natural way - is practically not present

. If pregnancy already came and the woman knows about it, then it is impossible to change the course of events anyway any means because in the course of fertilization information on future child including about that, there will be it one is put or them will be two.

But some factors all - increase probability of conception of dvuyaytsovy twins whereas the probability of the birth of uniovular twins is not connected with any hereditary and external factors and it is constant - on average 3 on 1000 pregnancies, that is 0,3%.

So, at women at the age of 35 - 39 years the probability of such conception increases. The matter is that during the late genital period in a female organism concentration of hormone which stimulates maturing of an ovum increases. Thus, at once several ova, ready to fertilization, at the same time can ripen. It is known also that duration of light day exerts impact on production of this hormone. Therefore a high probability to conceive twins in the spring when begins to warm the sun noticeably.

If in a family already, than the generation in which it happened is closer. Tendency to the birth of dvuyaytsovy twins is shown only at women. Men from such families can give this property to the daughters though in posterity of these men of the increased frequency of the birth of twins it is not observed.

More often several ova ripen at the women having a short menstrual cycle - 20 - 21 day, and also women with anomalies have developments of a uterus, for example, in the presence of a partition in a cavity of a uterus or a two-horned uterus (pathology of development of a uterus at which the body has not the pear-shaped form, and it is as if doubled).

in recent years for treatment of infertility and other gynecologic diseases the hormonal preparations stimulating maturing of an ovum and an ovulation began to use

widely. As a result pregnancy, long-awaited after many years of infertility, quite often appears twins or triplets! Successfully developing technologies of extracorporal fertilization (EKO) led too to the fact that pregnancy by twins or triplets stopped being a big rarity. Twins after EKO always raznoyaytsovy, often heterosexual, everyone - with the appearance and character.

It is reliable higher than the frequency of the birth of twins at various social shocks, wars.

When can be learned about twins?

fifteen More - learned about twins only at childbirth or not earlier 20 twenty years ago - y weeks of pregnancy. At recognition of polycarpous pregnancy the following signs were considered.

Increase in a uterus at a mnogoplodiya happens quicker, than at pregnancy by one fruit therefore the size of a uterus does not correspond to pregnancy term. At the same time the considerable volume of a pregnant uterus does not correspond to the small sizes of the prelying fruit head. Besides, at twins deepening of area of a bottom of a uterus (a saddle uterus) which formation is connected with protrusion of corners of a uterus large parts of fruits can be defined; and also longitudinal deepening on a forward wall of a uterus if twins are in longitudinal situation, or existence of a horizontal furrow on a forward wall of a uterus at cross position of twins. Long time important for diagnostics of twins was distinct definition in a uterus at obstetric research of three and larger parts of a fruit (two heads and one pelvic end or two pelvic ends and one head). Existence in different places of a uterus of two points of distinct heartbeat was of the same great importance.

Today ultrasonic research already on 5 - y week of pregnancy can tell

to future mother how many kids to it to expect. At the same time the doctor on the screen defines two “bubbles“ of the arising life. It is interesting that such find of a plant louse of the woman which fluctuated meanwhile to do or not to do abortion, almost in 100% of cases declines future mother to pregnancy preservation. The skilled doctor on term till 14 weeks of pregnancy can between “bubbles“ determine a type of twins by partition thickness (monogerminal or dizygotic).

apply To diagnostics of polycarpous pregnancy also a phonocardiography by means of which it is possible to register warm tones of twins not only in recent months pregnancies, but also on terms of 20 - 22 weeks and earlier.

the Price of double pleasure

As soon as the doctor of a maternity welfare unit will define that future mother waits for twins, and even triplets, it enlists it in category of pregnant women with the raised risk degree. It is connected with the fact that at women with polycarpous pregnancy in two and more times the risk of development of serious violations in a state of health in comparison with women who carry only one child is increased.

Even at uncomplicated polycarpous pregnancy the woman can feel fatigue; already in the second trimester short wind, tachycardia develops. This difficulty of action of the heart and lungs is connected with the considerable shift of a diaphragm a bottom of a uterus which size at polycarpous pregnancy is more, than at one-fetal, at the same time load of a cardiac muscle increases in three - four times. At pregnancy by several fruits the risk of arterial hypertension - increase of arterial pressure increases, the varicosity, thromboses of deep veins is more often noted. It is natural that about professional physical activities, a raising of serious weights out of the question. Moderate loading - foot walks in the fresh air, swimming is ideal. During sitting it is better to stir legs on a special support or a low coffee table - it will serve as a preventive measure against a varicosity. A good bandage and special tights for “double“ mothers too need. Rapid growth of a uterus can advance possibilities of skin in stretching therefore at mnogoplodpy pregnancy “extensions“ (ruptures of fabric) are often formed. Special means for care of skin of a stomach and hips help to reduce their emergence.

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At the women expecting twins quite often observe early toxicoses. It is connected with the fact that the level of hormones in blood is much higher, than at usual pregnancy. At polycarpous mothers arises more often and heavier such terrible complication of pregnancy as gestoz - a state at which all bodies and systems of mother are surprised fruits suffer proceeds. Gestoz is shown by increase of arterial pressure, emergence of protein in urine, hypostases standing.

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By the end of pregnancy often note increase of desires on an urination owing to the uterus pressure upon a bladder. Pregnant women quite often complain of heartburn and locks. The volume of a stomach of future mother decreases from - for squeezings by his stretched uterus. For this reason it is necessary to divide meals into six small portions. Despite small volumes, food has to be balanced. On each “excess“ kid 300 kcal, additional protein and calcium have to arrive. Especially future mother needs iron and folic acid, the shortcoming leads them to development of anemia (decrease in amount of hemoglobin) in mother and oxygen starvation in children. Besides a diet special vitamins for pregnant women and additional preventive reception of special preparations of iron will come to the rescue. It is good if not lower than 110 g/l are possible to hold hemoglobin.

the Most serious complication of polycarpous pregnancy the risk of not incubation is considered. Double, and even threefold load of a uterus quite often leads to the fact that ahead of time the uterine pharynx begins to reveal. Sometimes to inform of pregnancy at least till 36 weeks, it is necessary to resort to the special devices which are not allowing to reveal to a uterus neck, or to impose a seam which is removed in 36 - 37 weeks on a uterus neck. With the same purpose the doctor can recommend to future mother “to have a rest“ in office of pathology of pregnancy at maternity hospital in terms when most often there are abortions or premature birth. You should not break away from such offer.

At dvuyaytsovy twins the frequency of defects of pre-natal development same, as well as at one-fetal pregnancy, and at uniovular twins - is twice higher. The course of such pregnancy quite often is complicated by a growth inhibition of one of fruits. The most expressed degree of such delay is observed at a syndrome of a fetofetalny hemotransfusion (uniovular twins with one placenta eat from each other). In this case life is in danger of both. Usually the difference in body weight between twins is small and makes about 200 - 300 grams. At a syndrome of a fetofetalny hemotransfusion this difference reaches kilogram and more.

Nevertheless the vast majority of polycarpous pregnancies proceeds safely up to 37 - 38 weeks when childbirth begins. Usually doctors on this term recommend hospitalization in maternity hospital which purpose is inspection of the pregnant woman and determination of term and a method of a rodorazresheniye.