History with gate of
of Mayakovk before revolution
Where is Mayakovsky Square, neither Muscovites, nor guests of the capital should explain. It is easy to find it on a Moscow map and on the scheme of the subway.
But if we call the same toponym differently - the area of the Old Triumphal arch or Yanyshev Square, then many of you prizadumatsya.
Why Yanyshev Square
Who was Vladimir Mayakovsky, it is not necessary to explain. I will report about Mikhail Petrovich Yanyshev that he was a worker, the communist, the participant of revolution of 1905. After unsuccessful revolts in Moscow emigrated to the USA where was also an activist of labor movement. Not indifferent to the Russian problems and any protests, it in October, 1917 could be seen on the Moscow barricades again.
After a victory of Bolsheviks Yanyshev became the member of MK bureau of party and executive committee of the Moscow Council. Besides, also chairman of the Moscow revolutionary tribunal. In civil war headed the Moscow group in fights with Yudenich near Petrograd. Yanyshev on the Southern front in 1920 was killed in battle with vrangelevets. He was buried in a mass grave at Red Square at the Kremlin wall. The same year the area of the Old Triumphal arch received a name of this revolutionary.
we Will glance
of the Collar through the Earth city in age-old times when on a map of the area per se you would not find at all. There was an earth shaft with a defensive ditch. Through them on Tverskaya Road - the highway for journey to the city prikopat an embankment and put security guards - karaulshchik. The district was called the Tver gate of the Earth city (further on the same road, is closer to Moscow, when crossing with the White city there were Tver gate of the White city - now it is the Pushkin Square).
The first Triumphal arch through the Earth city on Tverskaya Road was built on the occasion of a victory in the Poltava fight in 1709. They were temporary. When St. Petersburg became the capital, from it on Tverskaya Road to Moscow future governors of the Russian land began to come to coronations. And on border of Moscow they were solemnly met at elegant gate.
So, Peter II in 1727 saw the Triumphal arch at the Earth shaft updated (at the expense of the state treasury). They stood decorated: in expensive carpets and pictures. In 1730 for a meeting of the empress Anna Ioanovna these gate remade a little.
In crowning of later times the Triumphal arch was many times reconstructed anew. For example, in 1742 for Elizabeth Petrovna the architect Korobov worked on their construction. During the strong Moscow fire on May 6, 1752 the Triumphal arch burned down. On June 28, 1762 day of the beginning of government of Catherine II came. On the same square a new Triumphal arch was constructed:
When the commander-in-chief of Moscow became Yakov Aleksandrovich Bruce (1784 - 1786), he suggested to construct floor spaces on 12 platforms of the city. The region of the Triumphal arch which is nowadays called in honor of Vladimir Vladimirovich (Mayakovsky) also got to their number. Here began to bring coal, firewood and hay for sale.
For entrance on crowning in 1797 of Paul I a new wooden Triumphal arch was constructed again. At that time the area was not represented wide and open: it was still pointed. Where Bolshaya Sadovaya Street lay later, there was “vyregulirovanny an earth shaft“ which at Tverskaya Road terminated in the stone police box. From the Triumphal arch there was rather narrow journey to Kudrino to the left, directly - the Tverskaya is expensive. To the West from them there was a yard with stone buildings of the tradeswoman Troylina, and still to the west - 5 wooden houses of state baths. To the East from gate there was a state public house, and near it, to the North - wooden “flour benches“ (for flour sale).
In 1805 the earth shaft on both sides of Tverskaya Street was razed, and the ditch - is filled up. Svobodnaya Square was already as if created, but its gate still decorated.
In 1809 on the place of a shaft and ditch to the East from Tverskaya Street facing it there was a stone two-storeyed house “umershago the merchant I. Kolosov“ in which first floor there were telezhny and woolen benches, and in the second - premises. Behind the house on Ruzheynaya Street wooden buildings remained:
To the middle of the 19th century the distribution network of Moscow was very saturated and differentiated. It supplied with goods not only White stone, but also other cities. On Triumphal Square, on the market, brought a stone for a paving of streets to the established market days. Here mostnik from the big and small settlements of Russia met. But by the end of the 19th century this market began to die off gradually.
of Metamorfozy Square
during Nicholas II`s crowning a role of the Triumphal arch carried out a construction of 1830 - x years at the Tver outpost, and the special pavilion, wonderful on beauty, which after a celebration, by August 1, 1896, transferred to Sokolnichye the field for supervision over sports there was on the square of the Old Triumphal arch. In the same years the water pool from where Muscovites from nearby houses took water for master`s needs worked at Triumphal Square. But in 1901 the Moscow justice disposed to put a big vase with the flowers instead of the pool (?!) than caused reasonable discontent among simple Muscovites.
There passed 10 more years, and on the market place (in 1911 - 1912) the justice suited the square which cost treasury 9 thousand rubles. Here broke flower beds with an irrigation water supply system, having fenced them with metal lattices.
On June 4, 1913 on Triumphal Square there was a consecration of factory and theater for cinema shootings of joint-stock company “K. Khanzhonkov and To“, and opening of movie theater on the place known to all Muscovites then was planned for October (after completion of construction).
New transformations on the area of the Old Triumphal arch began with the Soviet period. But it already another story altogether...