Bilingual family of
Development of the speech of the child
Marriages with foreigners - very widespread phenomenon in today`s life. Naturally, in such marriages children are born, and in a family there are questions: than which speech from parents will “be more native“ for kids? And whether it is possible that children equally well mastered both languages? Education of children in a situation of two or more languages and the corresponding amount of cultures, - along with the relations between spouses, also is a stumbling block in mixed marriages.mixed marriages were very extended by
In our country also at the time of “Iron Curtain“, the USSR was the multinational country. However Russian and therefore in such families, as a rule, it became the basic was language of international communication. And the been born children or knew the native languages of the parents very badly, or in general lost them. Therefore about such phenomenon as bi - or a multilingualism (two-or multilingualism), seriously it was not necessary to speak. Now the situation changed. On the one hand, citizens of our country communicate with representatives of so-called foreign countries more, and with another - residents of the former sister republics began to relate to own national languages more carefully. The new generation first of all felt all these tendencies on itself. Children should live with the birth in the atmosphere of two (or several) languages and cultures at the same time.
Bilingualism (bilingualism) - rather regular and natural use by one person of two languages in everyday life. If it is more languages, it is possible to speak also about trekh - and about a chetyrekhjyazychiya. And the languages adjoining in one person are not necessarily developed to the same extent: some it can be known speaking in a written and oral form and constantly we use actively, another - only in household lips “number option, the third - is clear, but is not active. Multilingualism is formed at children if the family lives in a foreign-language environment or parents speak different languages.
of Feature of mutual influence of languages
Each of two or more languages at a bilingual (the multilingual person) develops according to the same scenario, as some one. But this process can not coincide on time. Some of languages can “shoot“ ahead, depending on what environment dominates at present that interesting to the child now with whom he communicates. At the same time the created structures are partly transferred from one language to another, added to each other, and at times and force out one another.- it is the easiest than
for the First
If languages are strictly divided on scopes of application (for example, each of parents acts by the principle “one person - one language“ and speaks only the language, or speak in one language at home, and in world around - on another), then mixture, as a rule, does not happen. The child always knows to whom in what language to be addressed. However if parents use in communication several languages or in a family not one child, and a little, the situation becomes complicated. Not all also is not always known to whom and how to address, there are more mixed statements at which there are words and designs and that, and other language. The first child acquires both languages in the childhood usually best of all, at the second it turns out worse, at the third it is even worse. But further school and high school training, practice and work increase level of proficiency in that language which was weaker. Certainly, if all this time to the young man was necessary to communicate in this language.
will be called Let and shown!
It is incorrect that the child chooses only those words which sound more simply from each language and are said easier. The kid does not know this or that word in one of languages if it was not said in this language, and also - if between words of two languages there is no full compliance on value. Contrast between two languages most is considerably shown in a situation when the word which dominates, was clear and distinctly said (and at children is more senior - was in writing) against the corresponding subject or the phenomenon. The most interesting words on sounding with which these or those associations are connected acquire stronger communications in consciousness of the child.Language is very closely connected by
with a way of life and culture. If the culture of the second language is presented not in all the variety, there are no realities to which the corresponding names would belong, then there is also no reason for their studying.
Together or separately?Having become
adults, the people who are brought up in bilingual families find different degree of language skills. One never mix them, in the speech of others some impregnations, designs postponed from other language are noticeable. Sometimes knowledge of the second language at the matured child from a bilingual family is limited to knowledge of several names of these or those things, and it is already difficult to say more or less coherent phrase to it. Similar features are connected with the fact that parents at communication mixed languages. There is an assumption that extreme cases defective a poluyazychiya are connected with violations of development of speech function either at the level of perception, or on level of production of the speech.
Linguists declare that related languages (for example, the Russian and other Slavic) is possible and it is necessary to enter at the same time, explaining at the same time to the kid to what of languages this or that word concerns. The child with whom the father speaks Ukrainian and mother - in Russian, will distinguish both languages. But if parents speak on a surzhika (mix of Russian and Ukrainian), the kid will master surzhik too.
How to help the child to master languages?
Always, irrespective of circumstances and from whose that was presence, in the house needs to speak the native language. It is necessary to explain to guests that such is the rule of your family. It is necessary to talk to the child and to explain that he is one language richer, than the others. If the spouse (or the spouse) uncomfortably feels because communication in a family goes in unclear language, it is necessary to explain that relatives from it (or from it) hide nothing and that if he (or it) wants to participate in conversation, then can learn this language. It is necessary to lead discussion also with grandmothers and with grandfathers, having convinced them that they will always be a family to the child, but also depends on them, how well he will master language. To explain that such bilingualism, is necessary also for tutors in kindergarten, and to teachers at school. The people surrounding the child from a bilingual family have to understand that the person is able to acquire several languages since the childhood that this normal phenomenon, and from it the child will not turn into the defective person, and on the contrary, will receive a push in the development.
Communication of parents with the child has to be constant, various, with rich intonation, at the same time it is necessary to expand gradually a lexicon and to complicate the speech. It is necessary to speak, repeating the same designs in different situations, varying their filling with words. The same word should be used in different contexts, in different combinations. Always it is necessary to describe words what occurs, transferring the maximum quantity of details interesting to the child in the speech, emphasizing them with voice. In process of development of the kid adults have to touch upon new subjects, explain unknown words. It is useful to play word formation (for example, to think out suffixes to roots, “increasing“ or “reducing“ a subject), to select verbs on the same letter, to change the formulation of the offers describing one and a touch the picture to compete who will think up more questions to the same character, to reduce and expand descriptions, etc.
It is important that the child had partners in communication - peers, senior, younger, people man`s and female which would give the chance to hear different options of language in which different words, a different manner of a pronunciation, live conversation would be heard. Usually mother takes care of children more, than the father, respectively, her language at the kid is developed stronger. But also the father can make the language significant for the child.
Supportive applications - video movies, books, performances, training materials. They have to be near at hand, and the their is more, the better. Sometimes it seems to children important to watch some movie or to read the same book many times. It is necessary to show the same movie from time to time, to read one and a touch the book, to perform similar tasks on each of the learned languages. Nevertheless it is not necessary to overload the child with the same exercises which do not bear in themselves anything new. Interesting posters with words and verses can hang on walls.
If the child tries to compare these or those phenomena in both languages, then adults, whenever possible have to help it with it. And if the kid answers mother or the father not in that language in which to it addressed, the adult has to repeat the phrase and the answer of the kid in that language in which the child had to answer.
the Most frequent questions at education of bilingualism
- whether the adult Has the right to speak with the child language, nonnative for himself?
Yes, if is considered by it necessary for certain reasons. For example, if there is nearby no more person who would speak with the kid this language. So, one bilingual woman (mother`s language - Finnish, the father - Russian) married the Russian. While the family lived in Russia, she spoke with the child on - Finnish, he understood everything, but answered in Russian. When after divorce she moved to Finland, began to speak with the son in Russian, and after a while he already answered it on - Finnish. Then the lady married again and went to Brazil, and gradually Portuguese became the dominating language though she tried to support also other languages. Now her son studies in the USA, understands the Finnish speech, is on friendly terms with Portuguese-speaking and English-speaking peers, and activization of Russian was promoted by the affair with the immigrant.
- How to correct errors in the speech of children?
During the oral period of development of the speech - to school - should reformulate incorrectly constructed phrases, having corrected the allowed flaws.
At school age should concentrate on written language, to explain how words in this language are arranged. If Russian means - to tell what types of prefixes, roots, suffixes, the terminations exist when they unite with each other what changes at the same time happen as the pronunciation from transfer of an accent changes. And of course it is necessary to read as much as possible in both languages.
- whether Can teach the child to be read and written at once in two languages?it is better than
that these processes were carried on time that house or maternal language found writing in the beginning. So easier to both adults, and child. Being once acquired, skill of reading is transferred also to other languages even if writing at them absolutely another. Part of letters it will be obligatory to be confused, but it occurs also at the adults who are regularly using several systems of the letter. Experts claim that bilingual children begin to read in the second language quicker, than monolingual, and make less spelling mistakes since. their system of self-checking is developed stronger.
- When and to what kindergarten it is better to send the child? >it is better for em to define
of the Bilingual child in such kindergarten where will support and develop each of its languages, and then and in bilingual school. It is better to send the weak kid in the language relation whose parents cannot pay it enough attention to kindergarten where will support its main, dominating language, and then in school where other of pair of languages will become the basic. If at the child with development of house language everything is all right, it can be given to kindergarten and to school with other language and where, perhaps, also other languages will be taught.
- How many it is necessary to study language that to support him?
Have enough 15 minutes a day. But it has to be interesting, substantial communication, with use of new words and expressions, reading with discussion, the animated film with comments, a role-playing game, looking at pictures or photos with live scoring of the events displayed on them, production of hand-made articles, drawing and a molding with the entertaining story about the events. Making this list, there is a wish to emphasize that various kinds of activity and communication enrich and improve the speech.the Main difficulties
development of the bilingual child, it is necessary to be afraid only of one: the fact that any of languages will not be developed at the sufficient level.“ Monitoring“ has to be carried out concerning each of the interacting languages, but it is only necessary to attend when the child is not able to express himself, cannot find contact with peers, is not interested in the events, does not want “to develop“, learn new, to read, play on one of them. The bilingualism is not an obstacle to development, and on the contrary, promotes this process. But if the child has problems of the mental plan, then they will be shown rather brightly and in his speech.
In development of the bilingual child, are noted by experts, both languages can begin to develop later, than at monolingual, each of languages can be presented by a little smaller dictionary and grammatical stock, but together they will block the potential of the monolingual child. Multilingualism is not a separate sport, but all-round where only comprehensively developed persons win. Informative function of the speech forces parents to open for the child the world through the native language, to join system of values, typical ways of a formulation of the thoughts, calls surrounding, separating realized from weight seen and heard. If this function does not work, so something becomes incorrectly. Even if the child acquires both languages practically at the same time, the “second“ language all the same depends on “first“, is built on over it.
the Deceived expectations and unintentional pleasures
Not all children become full-fledged bilinguals, especially if in a family there are a lot of kids. But due to early introduction of multilingualism the basis for good assimilation of other languages will be given all. Usually those who since the childhood plunged into elements of different languages get on well better both at mathematics, and in other objects.
Many parents think what confuses the child if to it address in one, in other language they, and believe that at the preschool childhood there has to be only one language, and the second can be entered only after the first is mastered. Really, sometimes early bilingual education does not yield convincing results, however the subsequent development places everything on the places. So, the children who at the age of 5 years began to speak with parents language of the majority of people around or in 12 years the studies which refused to continue with the teacher of the second language, then were sorry about it and further sought to restore the lost language. Crisis of 16 years - identity crisis - forces in a new way, more positively to look at the originality, to emphasize identity.
the Language learned since the childhood is acquired by
of Advantage of bilingualism under the same laws, as native, and also deeply “sits“ in the person, and people often own it at more perfect level, than the language learned artificially. The second language is always the working tool, potential, a way to earn and lead more interesting life.
the Modern person, having appeared perceive surrounding realities outside the country in which was born, should not feel like the “stranger“ incapable isolated from the world adequately. Communication with representatives of other people and full-fledged perception of other cultures enriches the personality, allocates her with bigger internal freedom, a freedom and independence, so, provides a maximum of opportunities for vital success. Of course, not each person is capable to feel in any situation like a duck to water. But people - bilinguals, as a rule, adapt in world around much better, thanks to the high level of communication - that is is capablest to communication in the most different situations.