English education: respect and independence of
For many of us in the concept “Englishman“ the part of aristocratism is already put. Restraint of emotions, distinguished taste, some refinement in the vital schedule... Of course, the similar image was created at the majority according to books and movies, but a basis under itself(himself) it has quite real. What basic principles of education of little residents of the United Kingdom?Education in a family to
At playgrounds of the English cities young mothers is almost not visible to
. Can seem that all kids walk with grandmothers. But it not so - just here give birth to children late enough, often after 30 years or even to 40. At first the family has to get on feet, buy the house. And having created material resources, it is possible to think also of addition in family. And in a modern English family rather often happens three and more children. cannot Use
the help of elderly parents here, grandmothers and grandfathers, as a rule, live separately from a young family. They can take with pleasure grandsons for the weekend, but become free nurses - not in rules of British. Therefore with kids mothers stay at home generally. The exception is made by only those cases when professional activity of the woman is the basic (and considerable!) income of a family. However the English mothers even if they do not work, much more often than Russians, invite to themselves assistants to bring up and train the kid. Depending on material resources and own purposes, mother can use services of the nurse, the babysitter (babysitter) or the young people coming to the country for work on the program of Ai - pair.
of Service of the nurse (with accommodation) cost much, and the nurse is more educated, the more expensively therefore not all are able to afford similar pleasure. Not only care of the juvenile child belongs to duties of the English nurse. She has to develop the program of development for the kid and be engaged according to it with the child. But also - to drive the kid on walks, in circles and sections if he is written down there, to put it briefly, - not to lower from him eyes. Time for personal records at the nurse is limited only to an interval when her ward with pleasure snuffles in the bed.
the Babysitter, unlike the nurse, does not live in a family where he works. Its task - it is simple to look after the child during certain time, in time to feed him and to put to bed. Occupations with the kid to duties the babysitter do not belong though some of them on own initiative can read the child, play with him or draw, waiting for return of parents.
the Young people and girls coming to the country according to the program of Ai - pair, as a rule, have no pedagogical education. The purpose of their arrival - to see England, to be trained in English and to earn additionally a little. They have to carry out everything that parents of the kid ask to make, and usually become to the child someone like elder sister or the brother.
For little residents of England various circles and sections - swimming, gymnastics, music, foreign languages exist, and the English mothers willingly write down the children there.
Very widespread alternative to individual nurses and tutors - game groups which will be organized in private houses. Several mothers unite and in turn sit with children or all pay one. Sometimes such groups are created at some organizations. Often even during pregnancy of the woman with identical term are formed in groups for classes in preparation for childbirth, and then, already with kids, meet once a week to discuss the news and problems behind a cup of tea. At this time children are busy with toys and when grow up, play with each other. With kids (of several months!) classes are given by singing, charging, swimming.the English mothers are on the whole very patient
. They can many times in a row with a smile repeat to the child: “It cannot be done because...“ and disobedience of the kid will not cause in them irritation. Besides, parents from the earliest age (literally several days later from a sort) take babies with themselves in shops, cafe, etc. So children in this country very much early begin to adapt to the society surrounding them. To be fair it should be noted, as the country is adapted for children: in each shop there is a room for swaddling and feeding, at each restaurant and cafe - children`s stools, are convenient congresses everywhere from sidewalks and ladders therefore it is not necessary to drag a carriage for himself in hands. Sellers, waiters and other personnel are always benevolent to children. Therefore kids are not intimidated and easily make contact with adults. Besides, England - one of the safest countries for children in Europe. Percent of the accidents happening to children, here very low. The English kids ride bicycles in special helmets, playgrounds are strewed with soft sawdust or have a rubber covering, and in cars British transport the children only in special chairs.
the First step
the First preschool institution where it is possible to arrange the child in England, on functions is kindergarten, but is called school - Nursery School (“yaselny school“). They can be state, private or consist at any school. Usually in Nursery School of children learn to sing songs, to read verses, to dance, and with the smallest are engaged in exercises on development of small motility, arrange games which allow to develop abstract thinking, learn to help each other and to be polite. Is more senior than kids (of three years) gradually learn to read, write, and sometimes conduct lessons of a foreign language.
Private Nursery School happen different - to nurseries where accept children approximately from 3 months, and usual in which the child is taken from 2 years. As for the first - their services are very expensive. Here it is the share of one tutor only three children, and food and occupations - individual.
in England also one more option of game groups for preschool children - pres chool Exists. It is the registered organization which is directed by the government chosen from parents. It is very prestigious to get to this government, especially for fathers. Children are 2,5 hours a day in pres shool. They play, develop necessary skills, communicate with each other, sing songs or read books. And at the same time - learn colors, figures and letters. In the different ends of the room there are tables on which the most different toys and grants - from cubes and cars to plasticine, designers and puzzles are spread out. And each kid has an opportunity to be engaged in what is interesting at present to him. Here on 8 children - 1 tutor (surely the expert with the corresponding qualification).Participation of the state
When to the child is executed by
3 or 4 years (it depends on in what county the kid lives), parents receive on it special vouchers. The state pays with them to parents stay of their child in kindergarten during five changes a week, on two - three hours everyone. Each family has the right to dispose of them as will want: to use as surcharge for full day in a private garden or, nothing underpaying, to drive the kid in a kindergarten at 2,5 - 3 o`clock every day, except days off. All attention - the little personality
the Educational system in preschool institutions is constructed by
only proceeding from interests of the child. The care of a peace of mind of the child is regarded as of paramount importance. With children, even with absolutely small, all necessary questions are discussed. At the same time praises are generously distributed at the slightest pretext and for any, even the smallest, success here. It significantly raises a self-assessment of the kid and promotes development of self-confidence. It is considered that such relation will help it to adapt to life in any society and in any environment subsequently, to cope even with very difficult life situations and to come out from them the winner as it befits the true Englishman.
the Day regimen
According to the schedule the main difference of Nursery School from kindergarten habitual to us is that day is subdivided into two sessions - morning (approximately from 9 in the morning to 12 one o`clock in the afternoon) and day (approximately from 1 to 4 evenings). Between sessions the break for a lunch is provided. The child it is possible to write down on the necessary number of days in a month. Parents can bring the child and here for full day, and only on one session - in the morning or in the evening. Payment, certainly, will be various - pay for the number of changes and separately for a break.Academic year at yaselny school is subdivided by
into four quarters, by quantity of seasons. Week vacation is provided not only between quarters, but also in the middle of each quarter. Between summer and autumn quarters children are given the chance to have a rest 1,5 months.
As there take place occupations
Children take seats in the room on oriental carpets, and the tutor carries out muster. Then at a board one of children from dictation of the others places plates with the indication of the present day of week, a date, weather. Then the group is divided into two subgroups on age and studies begin directly. The senior children learn the alphabet, solve simple problems, learn to write letters. At the smallest there take place the developing occupations meanwhile, to them show various objects, explain what for what is used and that as is called. Such “lessons“ last not for long, only 10 - 15 minutes. After that children can quietly play especially as in toys of a shortcoming is not present - there are various machines, designers, dolls, children`s lodges, a small swing, pencils and paints for drawing, plasticine and other accessories to hand-made articles.
Obligatory rule: after game to clean everything into place, to put the room in order, to clean garbage. It is done by all together - both children, and tutors. After a lunch children start development of creative skills - sing songs, compose sketches, collect a mosaic, draw, mold from clay. And at last there comes time of walks. Kids on the special platform fenced from all directions walk. Play as well as their Russian peers - ride from a hill, dig in a sandbox. It represents the big box which is closed on the lock with sand in which shovels, sovochka, buckets and other corresponding toys lie. After walk kids manage to gambol in the game room or to read some book, and the first change comes to an end. The teacher carries out muster again and removes to parents of those children who do not remain on the second change. The others take seats at tables and eat. And then they are waited again by games and occupations.
the Childhood at the English child very short: in 4 - summer age at it the school time already begins. In school the child has to be written down from a quarter which follows his birthday. You should not postpone receipt in educational institution, it is fraught with complications in the future. The matter is that for all years of training of the child the school is obliged to hand over reports, and data in them are closely connected pupils with age. The number of the children who reached by the reporting period of a certain age and data on that how many percent of pupils passed necessary examinations and how many did not cope with this task is specified in these documents. Therefore if the child went to school after the put age, then there can be a big confusion.
the Education system
School education in England includes two modules: initial - for children aged from 4 till 11 years (till 7 years - at school for kids (Nursery School), and from 7 to 11 years - at younger school) and an average - for children from 11 to 16 years. If parents want to train the child of the house, they need to get permission of local council by training which has to be convinced that conditions of training will meet accepted standards, including obligatory religious education.
Besides, in Great Britain the system of free education which any child, irrespective of a nationality, racial accessory and the social status of his parents can receive exists. And along with free municipal schools there are also private, paid educational institutions.
In 4 years, being admitted to elementary school, little pupils begin to be engaged thoroughly in the account, reading and the letter, at the same time homeworks give once a week. Classes are surely given in physical culture, at many schools of times a week children visit the pool. In training it is focused on ability to independently gain knowledge and to put them into practice. Children are engaged in libraries and laboratories much, have to remember the homeworks. Examination usually takes place in writing - in the form of the essay and projects. At the same time the teacher usually only outlines some problem, and the pupil himself formulates a subject and selects material.
of Occupation at younger school is passed in very soft, game form, without any attempts “to adjust“ all to one general level. Each child develops individually, according to the level of the opportunities.Participation of parents
, British, as well as parents of all countries of the world, are interested in progress and problems of the children and communicate on this subject with teachers. However there are no PTA meetings in our understanding of this action here. Just 5 - 10 minutes for individual communication with the teacher are allotted to parents of each child. There are at the English schools also parental committees. Among their duties is also such as getting of money for school needs. But they do not collect from parents, and seek to earn. For example, will organize in educational institution display of the movie with sale of popcorn and sweets in buffet. The part of the received money pay those who provided a session, for services, and other means go to fund of school. For the same purposes arrange discos and even a barbecue for children, parents and all locals. For additional profit can open both buffet with beer and wine (naturally, for adults), but the similar type of obtaining the income demands the special license. Besides, schools have the government chosen from parents of present and even former pupils. Much attention in educational institutions is paid by
to charity. Since small years of children learn to help those who need it. For fund raising on the charitable purposes in educational institution will organize, for example, “day without school uniform“ when each child has the right to come in what will want and brings with itself a small contribution - 1 pound sterling (about 50 rub). The school transfers the raised money, for example, for a children`s hospice 1 or in fund of the homeless. But in general the relation to money at British very sober and practical. Teenagers from 16 years use any opportunity that to earn money. It is not accepted to squander money in England.to
If needs punishment
In gardens of the guilty children punish: or lecturing in words, or ask to sit quietly in a corner (a familiar method, isn`t that so?) . The smallest are not punished absolutely, just try to distract from prank and to translate attention of the child to something else. If it is impossible, then the problem is solved together with parents of the kid. It is remarkable that children are not allowed to fight with each other, all problems are offered to be solved in other ways.
I one more distinctive feature of the English education which, perhaps, concerns more to adults, than to children: in England it is not encouraged that the adult did remarks to foreign child. If the child plays pranks or does something bad, then by the English rules it is necessary to tell about it to the rascal`s parents, but not to straighten out him.
the Main goal of the English education - to develop a strength of mind of the child, a habit in any conditions to be self-controlled, to give in to difficulties and to find a way out of any, even the most difficult situations, and of course to keep at the same time manners of the true gentleman or the true lady as it was accepted centuries in the English society.