Rus Articles Journal

Inoculations ``in excess of the plan``: vaccination against meningitis of

Unfortunately, the inoculations entering the list of obligatory vaccination cannot protect the child from all dangerous diseases, for example from such infection as meningitis (an inflammation of brain covers). Knowing about consequences of this serious and dangerous illness, many parents are interested whether it is possible to impart from it the child and how to make it?

of the Uniform inoculation from this serious and dangerous disease is not present

as meningitis is caused by different activators - both bacteria, and viruses. Meningitis bacterial is most dangerous (them still call purulent). The child can really be protected from some of them vaccination, but these inoculations do not enter a national (free) calendar of inoculations.

three species of bacteria - a hemophilic stick of type B, a meningokokka and pneumococci are the Most frequent reasons of purulent meningitis .

a hemophilic infection Inoculation

the Hemophilic infection (HIB - an infection) is caused by a hemophilic stick type B . It can become the reason of purulent meningitis, pneumonia (pneumonia), an epiglottit (an inflammation of a nadgortannik), arthritis (an inflammation of joints), and also purulent defeat of all organism - sepsis. The hemophilic infection is characterized by a heavy current and complications. It is easily given vozdushno - a drop way at conversation, sneezing, cough, especially among children to five - six years. The microorganism can not cause diseases in some of them, but it is necessary to live in a nasopharynx (these are healthy carriers). Such children will be an infection source for other kids at whom development of a serious illness is possible.

the Most severe form of a hemophilic infection is purulent meningitis .

According to some information, in Russia in children till 6 years to a third of all cases of purulent meningitis is caused by a hemophilic stick of type B.

the Disease begins with high temperature (to 39 - 40 °C), a fever, the heat expressed the child`s indispositions. Sometimes there is an unusual drowsiness, a headache, vomiting. At children till 1 year an equivalent is loud crying (from - for a headache) and a fontanel vybukhaniye. These symptoms are caused by increase of intra cranial pressure from - for inflammations of covers of a brain. Symptoms accrue within several days, and the state becomes extremely heavy.

the Disease can proceed and as the isolated meningitis, and with defeat of other bodies (joints, lungs), development of sepsis is possible. Hemophilic meningitis will badly respond to treatment as their activator produces enzymes which do it steady against antibiotics (about 20 - 30% of the hemophilic sticks allocated from patients are tolerant to many antibiotics). Therefore results of treatment are not always successful, and mortality at severe forms of a disease can reach 16 - 20%. At a third of the patients who had hemophilic meningitis irreversible neurologic complications - spasms, a delay nervously - mental development develop, deafness, a blindness, etc.

the Pneumonia caused by a hemophilic stick of type B arises mainly at children from 2 to 8 years, and its current in 60% of cases also has various complications, including from heart and lungs. Connect with a hemophilic infection to a half of all purulent infections of an ear, a throat, a nose, in particular recurrent purulent otitises (an ear inflammation) and sinusitis (an inflammation of additional bosoms of a nose), and also frequent acute respiratory diseases at children. In recent years it became known that sensitivity to this microbe is increased at children with the chronic bronchopulmonary pathology and bronchial asthma provoked by infections.

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Due to the weight of a current, a variety of clinical manifestations, a large number of complications, high mortality and insufficient efficiency of treatment of a hemophilic infection developed the program of its prevention by means of inoculations. A hemophilic infection inoculation is recommended by World Health Organization to all children. This immunization is carried out by more than eighty countries of the world, and in the states with obligatory vaccination the hemophilic infection is almost liquidated. Efficiency of vaccination is estimated as 95 - 100%. In Russia this inoculation does not enter a calendar of planned vaccination. One of the reasons is the high cost of the foreign vaccine registered in our country and absence (now) of domestic analogs. However, considering danger of meningitis to life and health, parents should think of vaccination of the child against this infection.

the Scheme of vaccination against a hemophilic infection

Children from the birth to three months are protected by

from a hemophilic infection thanks to maternal antibodies (if mother in the life met this infection), which then disappear. With 1,5 to 3 - summer age the child at a meeting with this infection independently begins to develop antibodies, and to five - six years most of children is completely protected, and the hemophilic infection develops at them much less often, generally at immunodeficiency. Therefore the stage when the child is most defenseless before an infection, so, especially needs vaccination, is an age from 2 - 3 months to 5 years. Besides, these inoculations, regardless of age, carry out by everything to patients with immunodeficiency: after a bone marrow transplantation, after removal of a spleen, a thymus, and also received treatment concerning an oncological disease, AIDS - to patients, patients with chronic a bronchial tube - pulmonary diseases.

the Scheme of immunization depends on age when it is begun. In the countries where a hemophilic infection inoculation is obligatory, it begins to be done with 2 - 3 - monthly age, it is triple, with an interval in 1 - 2 month, together with AKDS vaccines (against whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus) and poliomiyelitny. The revaccination (the fixing inoculation), just as AKDS, is carried out once in 12 months after the third inoculation. If vaccination is received by children from 6 to 12 months of life, it is enough to enter two injections with an interval in 1 - 2 month with a revaccination in 12 months after the second inoculation. At the beginning of vaccination of children 1 years and the adults having immunodeficiency are aged more senior, carry out an inoculation once. Immunity remains is long. Revaccinations to patients of this age group carry out only in case of an immunodeficiency. To them repeat an inoculation of 1 times in 5 years.

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Structure of a vaccine

In Russia registered (it is allowed for use) a foreign vaccine the ACT - HIB. It contains not all microbe, and only its separate components - sites of a cellular wall. The preparation does not contain preservative, antibiotics and represents solid which before an injection gets divorced the solvent attached to a vaccine and is entered intramuscularly (into a hip - to children till 18 months, into a shoulder - after 18 months) in a dose of 0,5 ml. The combination to all vaccines (except BTsZh) and with is possible 1 immunoglobulin . It is allowed to part a vaccine the ACT - HIB with TETPAKOK vaccine (the foreign combined whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis vaccine), but not solvent and to enter in one syringe that reduces number of injections at vaccination.

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the Vaccine the ACT - HIB is well transferred. Vaccine-challenged local reactions (usual, normal) in the form of morbidity, hypostasis and redness meet no more to what 10% imparted. Vaccine-challenged general reactions happen seldom - at 1 - 5% imparted - and are shown in the form of a short-term indisposition, irritability or drowsiness, and also small temperature increase of a body. At repeated and joint vaccination with AKDS the quantity and intensity of the general and local reactions does not increase. Complications in the form of allergic reactions are extremely rare.

Temporary contraindication to vaccination, as well as to all other inoculations, is the acute infectious disease or an exacerbation of a chronic disease. In this case the inoculation is carried out in 2 - 4 weeks after recovery.

Constant contraindication - heavy allergic reaction to the components of a preparation and complication which arose after the previous introduction.

a meningococcal infection Inoculation

are Other reason of purulent meningitis of a meningokokka . It is big group of activators which cause more than 60% of meningitis in children and adults. They are also subdivided, in turn, into a number of groups - A, B, C, W135, Y, etc. The disease is transmitted vozdushno - a drop way from the person to the person. Range of clinical displays of a meningococcal infection is very wide. Also as well as at hemophilic, its source is not only the patient with meningococcal meningitis, but also carriers of this microorganism (their about 5%, but a carriage, generally short-term, unlike a hemophilic infection), and also those who are ill an easy form of an infection which looks as an acute respiratory disease.

the Meningococcal infection people of all age - both children, and adults are ill, but the main group is made by kids till 1 year, to be exact - the first half of the year (3 - 6 months). The smallest penises of a family often catch from the senior children or adults. Epidemics (big flashes) of meningococcal meningitis are usually caused meningokokky groups A. Each 10 - 12 years occur periodic rises in incidence. In Russia now incidence carries sporadic (single), but not epidemic character and is caused mainly (almost in 80%) meningokokky groups B. According to World Health Organization, annually in the world more than 300 000 cases of diseases of meningococcal meningitis are registered. From them 30 000 lethal outcomes. Across Russia mortality among adult population can reach 12%, among children - 9%.

Meningokokk is capable to strike with

various bodies - a pharynx, a nose, lungs, heart, joints, and not just brain covers. There can be a defeat of all organism - blood poisoning (sepsis). High rise in temperature, a sharp headache and the repeating vomitings is characteristic of a meningococcal infection. the Main distinctive sign - emergence of a star-shaped type of small hemorrhagic rash (hemorrhages in skin, small points and “asterisks“ at the same time if to stretch skin about a rash element, then rash, unlike other, not hemorrhagic types, will not disappear) . Rash in the form of single elements begins to develop on a stomach, buttocks, heels, shins and in few hours extends on all body.

precipitancy of a current is characteristic

Of a meningococcal infection. There are so-called lightning forms of an infection at which from the beginning of emergence of the first symptoms (high fever) to death passes less than a day.

Structure of vaccines against a meningokokk

in the world are released Now by vaccines against a meningokokk of subgroups of A, C, W135, Y, etc. The vaccine against a meningokokk of group B is developed by a number of foreign firms, and so far pass its large-scale prelicense tests. In our country domestic vaccines MENINGOCOCCAL And yes And + are issued With; and also foreign analogs from various producers are registered: MENINGO A+S. They are polisakharidny vaccines, that is such which contain polisakharidy1 a cellular wall of a meningokokk, but not all microbe. These preparations do not contain preservatives and antibiotics.

of the Scheme of immunization against a meningokokk

of the Vaccine against a meningokokk is recommended to be entered to people in the infection centers, and also for planned application to children 18 months, to the teenagers and adults who are living in districts with a high incidence or leaving to such regions are more senior. Also a meningococcal infection inoculation is necessary (under WHO recommendations) for mass vaccination during epidemics caused by meningokokka of groups A and S.

Domestic vaccines - MENINGOCOCCAL And, And + With - apply from 18 months, and also enter to teenagers and adults. These drugs can be injected and to children 18 months are younger if in a family there is a diseased, or depending on an epidemic situation in this region, however this measure does not create long, resistant immunity, and vaccination needs to be repeated after 18 months

enter the Vaccine once, hypodermically under a shovel or into the top third of a shoulder. To kids from 1 year to 8 years - on 0,25 ml of the dissolved preparation, and more senior children and adults - on 0,5 ml.

the Vaccine of MENINGO A+S is entered to children from 2 years and the adult on 0,5 ml once, hypodermically under a shovel or into the top third of a shoulder. Children from 6 months can use this vaccine if in a family there is a diseased, but efficiency will be less high, and repeated inoculations will be necessary. Six-month-old kids, if they are taken out to a zone, dangerous on meningococcal meningitis, need to do vaccination not later than two weeks before departure that immunity managed to be developed. 6 years are more senior than children and adults it is possible to impart just before departure.

to the Kids imparted till 2 years in 3 months enter a repeated dose and further do still an inoculation - once in 3 years.

At vaccination of children 2 years efficiency of an inoculation are more senior than

reaches 85 - 95%, and in 3 years the single revaccination for immunity maintenance is recommended. At adults after single immunization protection remains within 10 years.

In regions where incidence of meningococcal meningitis has incidental character, groups of children and adults who need to do this inoculation are. These are patients with a remote spleen, with immunodeficiencies, including AIDS - patients, and people with anatomic defects of a skull. In the presence of high risk of a disease impart even pregnant women.

is not present

of Constant contraindications for vaccination. Temporary - same, as well as at hemophilic vaccination.

the Answer of an organism

of the Vaccine against a meningococcal infection are well transferred by

. At 25% imparted vaccine-challenged local reaction in the form of morbidity and reddening of skin in the place of a prick is possible. Sometimes there is a small temperature increase which is normalized in 24 - 36 hours.

These vaccines are not obligatory for

for planned immunization in our country, but it is necessary to know about them, especially to those parents whose child is included into group of high risk of development of a meningococcal infection, or that who plans rest in the countries with an adverse situation on distribution of this infection (some countries of Africa). In such situations it is necessary to think of an inoculation in advance. It is necessary to remember a possibility of such protection and in case the child contacted to the patient with a meningococcal infection.

a pnevmokokkovy infection Inoculation

the Third big group of microbes which cause purulent meningitis are pneumococci. They are also activators of a severe form of pneumonia, damage of joints, purulent otitis. Pneumococci vozdushno - from the people sick with various forms of a pnevmokokkovy infection, and its carriers are transferred a drop way. Small children, patients with immunodeficiency, including with HIV - an infection are most subject to a disease, and people are more senior than 65 years.

Pnevmokokkovy pneumonia makes

to 50% of all pneumonia. As a result of this disease several segments or a lung share are surprised, defeat of all body in general - so-called krupozny pneumonia is possible. Often damage of a pleura (pleurisy) joins these problems.

In structure of bacterial meningitis 20 - 30% fall to the share of a pneumococcus. Purulent pnevmokokkovy meningitis has common features with other bacterial meningitis, but differs in a frequent combination to pneumonia, complications from heart and expressiveness of residual states, such as violation of intellectual development, deafness, etc.

Recently the increasing number of pneumococci becomes tolerant

to antibiotics that complicates treatment and putat it more expensively.

Structure of a vaccine against a pnevmokokkovy infection

Immunization became an important factor of prevention of a pnevmokokkovy infection. In Russia one foreign pnevmokokkovy vaccine is registered: PNEUMO 23. Polysaccharides of cellular walls of the 23 most often found pneumococcus subtypes are a part of this preparation.

the Scheme of vaccination from a pneumococcus

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the Inoculation is carried out to children with 2 - summer age and the adult, once, in number of 0,5 ml, hypodermically or intramuscularly. Immunization is shown to all children who often have respiratory infections, especially - with repeated bronchitis (an inflammation of a mucous membrane of bronchial tubes), pneumonia (pneumonia), otitises (an ear inflammation), and also with the chronic diseases leading to decrease in immunity and with immunodeficiency.

At vaccination of patients with an immunodeficiency is recommended to repeat an inoculation of 1 times in 5 years.

Separately should tell

about need of planned vaccination of patients with chronic diseases of heart, vessels, lungs, a liver, kidneys, diabetes, oncological processes, including after a bone marrow transplantation, removal of a spleen, to the infected HIV as this category of children and adults can have extremely heavy course of an infection with death. it is important to p to note

that a vaccine PNEUMO 23, as well as the ACT - HIB, reduces the frequency of respiratory diseases and therefore it is shown to often ill children visiting child care facilities. If necessary impart even pregnant women in the last trimester (if there was a contact with the patient sick with a severe form of an infection, and risk of an infection for a fruit, as well as danger of infection of the woman, is much higher, than risk of complications from vaccination).

the Answer of an organism

3 - 5% imparted can have usual vaccine-challenged local reactions - small reddening, morbidity, consolidation. The general vaccine-challenged reactions arise seldom too and are characterized by temperature increase of a body, a headache, an indisposition. Extremely seldom there can be general allergic complications of vaktsinalny process in the form of allergic rash.

Temporary contraindications to vaccination usual - sharp diseases and exacerbations of chronic illnesses. In this case, as well as at other vaccination, it is necessary to do an inoculation not earlier than in 2 - 4 weeks after recovery.

Constant contraindications to this vaccine - heavy allergic reactions to the components of a vaccine or complication which arose after introduction of the previous preparation dose.

the Inoculation against a pneumococcus can be carried out by

at the request of the patient or the child`s parents in paid offices and commercial centers of vaccination.

Thus, all three vaccines protect the child from bacterial meningitis and from a number of other diseases. It is impossible to call them cheap, but the cost of treatment of a disease is much more expensive, not to mention the price of possible consequences when the child perishes or becomes the disabled person.

the Most important task of parents - health of the kid; first of all they bear responsibility for a condition of the child therefore they need to know about all opportunities of modern preventive medicine.