How to prevent trouble of
the Accidents caused by the different reasons - from burns to poisonings, annually claim thousands of the children`s lives. At the same time household traumatism, serious mutilations of children and their death can almost always be avoided
I it depends first of all on parents.
Seven most common causes of children`s traumatism
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Four-year-old Verochka got on the second floor of the private house down the street of the Truth in Voronezh. Played with a lighter. The fire broke out instantly. Fortunately, the arrived firefighters managed to pull out the girl from the blazing house in time.
Five-year-old Christina from Tolyatti nearly choked in a ditch, having stepped into the thin ice covering it. It is good that mother who was in time to notice how the daughter left under water was near.
In Moscow from the most severe intoxication the child to whom mother by mistake gave instead of powder of absorbent carbon a teaspoon of manganese potassium died.
can give Similar examples indefinitely. Considering these and similar to them the tragedy, security specialists and children`s doctors agree in opinion that there are they, mainly, for two reasons.
In - the first , parents underestimate the dangers existing in own house mistakenly believing that fatal diseases or crimes like stealing are more serious threats of life and to health of their children.
In - the second , they overestimate ability of children to avoid dangers, and are mistaken, thinking that the small child will execute a strict order not to touch, for example, a hot plate or not to take anything in a mouth.
- If adults generally suffer from accidents on the street, and a home for them - fortress, then small children get the most dangerous injuries at home. And in 80% of cases - in the face of parents, - the chief surgeon of department of health care of the government of Moscow, MD Vakhtang Nemsadze says. To do everything possible that the misfortune did not occur, - a debt of each parent.
Begin to treat more seriously from now on the following seven dangers, and you will manage to prevent a call of “ambulance“ to your child.
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the Child and the car
of Accident on roads remain the main reason for death and wounds of children.
In Russia annually in them about 1,3 thousand little passengers perish and sustain injuries of 22 - 23 thousand more children.
according to traffic police, the number of the children who were injured in accidents (without a lethal outcome) over the last ten years increases on average for 1 - 2% a year.
From each five children who were traumatized in road accident, two become disabled people.many parents it break
Despite the law forbidding to transport the child on forward sitting. The safest place in car showroom the place behind on the right is considered. There also the child on specially established seat has to sit.
at the same time the speed of the car should not exceed 60 km/h.
From the book of professor V. P. Nemsadze “Children`s traumatism“
the Fire and burns
Are your most terrible nightmare. Fire covers the house, everywhere tongues of flame and a smoke: the fire and burns are the main cause of death of the house of children aged till fourteen years. The main risk group - children of five years is also younger. The amount of death among them more than twice exceeds similar figure for other age groups. Only in Moscow about 12 thousand children annually suffer from burns, from them one and a half thousand need hospitalization.
Small children are especially vulnerable in the situations connected with fire as they have no sense of danger, and they react to threat of the life not at once. Besides, the child`s organism transfers poisoning with burning products worse.
How to minimize a risk of fire:
- you Store matches and lighters in the locked cases. Tell
- to children about the dangers connected with fire.
- Prepare “the plan of evacuation“ and from time to time you stage drills to avoid panic and confusion if there is a misfortune.
Other danger - the burns caused by hot food and liquids. The child can strongly suffer if overturns on itself a vessel with boiled water or will turn the bucket prepared for bathing with hot water. At influence of high temperatures the burn of the second or third degree will develop at the child for fractions of a second.
- Leads contact with water which temperature is higher than 50 degrees to serious injuries, - the manager of burn office for children of early age of the Moscow children`s city clinical hospital No. 9 of MD Lyudmila Budkevich says. - Now there are a lot of absolutely young mothers who owing to the age extremely trifle of children. Not only that smoke in the presence of children (and where a cigarette, there always game with fire which comes to an end with delivery of the child in the burn center), still manage to wash away the kid directly under the crane from where quite often boiled water flows just. Every year 1,2 - 1,3 thousand injured children, the majority of whom is not also three years old, address only us
in the burn center.
to avoid injuries, follow the following rules:
- you Watch water temperature. Norm is temperature to 50 °C.
- Put hot drinks so that the child could not reach them. Never you transfer hot if you have on hands a child.
- Put pans and frying pans on a plate so that handles were turned from you! For a guarantee of safety of the kid place him in an arena or put on a children`s stool while you cook food.
All parents perfectly know that water attracts children as a magnet. They adore playing with it where it was found: in a bathtub, in a toilet, in a sink, in the pool. Is less known the fact that children under four years sink by 2 - 3 times more often than children are more senior.
Water level not necessarily has to be big to constitute danger. The kid can drown less than in a minute even if depth makes only couple of centimeters. At small children the upper body outweighs lower, and if they fall in a bucket headfirst, forces can not be enough for them to be chosen. Though bunglers from animated films come back to memory at once, danger is really big.
According to OSVODA, annually in Russia 3 - 3,5 thousand children sink. The most part of accidents are the share of the beginning of summer. Children perish in small rivers and reservoirs, and a half of them - were able to swim. The whole 7% from them choked in pools - parents and could not imagine what can lead a puskaniye of ships to. Another 10% sink in own bathtubs, once the senior leaves.
The director of the National organization of the USA “Let`s rescue children“ Heather Paul considers: “The drowning - silent death, it comes imperceptibly. Neither shouts, nor crying, the child just faints“. The member of the committee on prevention of injuries and poisonings of the American academy of pediatrics, the pediatrician from Kentucky University and the doctor of medicine Suzan Pollack highlights:“ Nothing will replace supervision of adults. Even if your children do swimming with the trainer, it is not necessary to feel absolute confidence that they are not threatened any more by danger to drown“.
That the trouble did not happen:
- Never leave the small child in a bathtub unguarded. Children at least till six years have to bathe in the presence of the adult, and even at more advanced age it is necessary to watch them.
- Merge water from a bathtub, the pool, a bucket and any other capacity right after use. Do not let out from - under control of the child until basins and buckets are filled with water.
Children investigate the world a mouth, for them quite naturally to taste everything that is not fastened tightly. Their inquisitiveness can lead to the tragedy.“ Little Nikita found an open razor on a floor and was accepted to “yum-yum“ - “food“ got stuck in a gullet, it was necessary to operate urgently the child“, - professor Nemsadze tells.
- Everything that can be located in a box from - under films, is not enough for childish sports, - doctor Pollack considers.
All small objects need to be cleaned to places, inaccessible for the kid. Also have to be inaccessible to children firm food, such, for example, as nuts, popcorn are younger than six years.
Other councils: Let the child eats
- at a table. In this case you will have an opportunity to watch what size he puts pieces in a mouth.
- you Treat warnings of safety seriously. If on a toy it is written that it is not intended for children 3 years are younger, it speaks about existence of small details, having swallowed which the child can choke. You watch closely that the child played only with the toys suitable his age.
- you Store toys for children of advanced age separately. Combined detalk from the designer and doll shoes are not dangerous to a shestiletka, but only - only the starting walking kid can from - seriously to suffer for them.
- do not buy balloons from latex. They easily burst, and children can swallow scraps.
- Lock all cases in the house, then the child will not be able to reach a box with threads, needles and buttons, will not get nails, nuts, screws.
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Several safety rules on roads for adults and children
Use of extra packings for toxic agents could help to avoid many poisonings. Unfortunately, in Russia there is no law on poisons, and each producer lets out, sells and packs the goods in the way convenient to it. Many people get poisoning because, for example, vinegar and acetone are on sale in identical bottles.
By data it is information - the advisory center for poisonings of a chemical etiology, annually about 300 thousand people, 20 - 25% from them - children till 14 years suffer from poisonings in Russia. And the main quantity of poisonings are the share of children of 1 - 4 years which organism is less steady against effect of toxic chemicals. Children of this age have multi-colored liquids and small tablets cause irresistible desire to try them. Therefore, all - from means for washing of ware and bleach to the drugs and fertilizers sold without recipe - can appear in a mouth at the child if you do not care for controlling them and to store in places, inaccessible for children.
- It is necessary to repeat again and again: parents have to clean far away everything that can get into a mouth to the child and cause poisoning - drugs, cosmetics, means of hygiene. It is necessary to bring order to home first-aid kits, to place dangerous and harmless preparations on different regiments, to mark with warning signs especially active means, - Sergey Strakhov managing toxicological office of the Filatovsky city hospital of Moscow says.
Consequences of the fact that the child swallowed toxic agent are awful. Even if he will survive, poisonous means can burn a gullet, and this damage which will remain forever.“ So many hems can be formed that medical intervention will be constantly required for the child to eat, drink or swallow“, - doctor Pollack says.
Listen to the following councils:
- Check your first-aid kit. You store houses only those drugs which are absolutely necessary for you.
- Carefully think over storage of toxic substances. Means of hygiene, chemicals and drugs have to be in densely closed capacities in such places where they are not visible to the child and he will not be able to get them. Establish to
- safety latches on boxes and cases which the child can reach.
- Check any liquid, powder or a tablet which you are going to give to the child.
a children`s bed surprisingly cozy, but can be a deadly trap. According to data of the American academy of pediatrics, suffocation is a main reason for casual death of children about one year. Bedding because the face of the baby plunges into a pillow are the main defendant or it is shrouded in soft fabric so that the child cannot breathe.
The doctor of medicine Daniel Larak, the graduated in a military academy - professor of clinical pediatrics of Columbia University in New - York advises: the child has to sleep on a rigid mattress which precisely approaches by the size and does not form a gap with a bed wall. To pillows, soft toys, big wadded and heavy woolen blankets not the place in a bed of the baby, he can choke under them. The sheet has to be properly tense on a mattress. Give preference to a thin blanket and cover with it the child not above than up to a breast. Carefully tuck in it under a mattress. You watch that the child slept on a back - it is the safest situation.“ If you put the baby on a stomach, there is a risk that he will choke. It is one of the reasons of sudden death of children of chest age during a dream“, - doctor Larak explains.
Experts consider dangerous a situation and when the child sleeps together with parents: there were cases when in the morning they found dead the baby. Children choked, having appeared between a mattress and a wall (or a bed wall), or perished from - for the fact that one of parents or the elder brother or the sister crushed them in a dream. Among them three quarters were in age about three months.
And though nursing mothers from - for night feedings often prefer that the child slept near them, safer it would be simple to put his bed in the bedroom. Or to get a special cradle which fastens to a bed of adults as a carriage to the motorcycle. It will provide to the child a convenient separate berth.
- Properly think before stacking children in the bed.
- do not put the child on a sofa and do not prop up it pillows - it can turn over, having been a face between them. The place where the child sits or lies, has to be firm.
- do not scatter cellophane packages and brown paper on the house. Children play with all they can reach, without understanding that these materials constitute danger.
Stings of dogs, scratches of catsMost often children are
objects of attack of dogs. Why does that happen and how to secure the child?
According to children`s traumatologists, children from three to fourteen years, and, as a rule, from own pets or from animal friends and neighbors are influenced by aggression of animals generally. Quite seldom vagrant homeless animals attack.
Across Moscow the average value does not change several years - 850 - 900 addresses to doctors a year. Character of injuries the most different: from scratches to serious mutilations.
Parents have to realize that if in the house there is an animal, it is necessary to watch closely the child even more. The kid is impulsive and very sincere in the acts, and the animal can inadequately react even to attempt to caress him if the child behaves incorrectly.
The one-and-a-half-year-old boy came to Filatovsky hospital. It with parents came on a visit to the grandmother who had a dog. The boy decided to embrace the shaggy friend for a neck and stretched to his muzzle, and the dog did not understand that the child wants to make, and bit him directly in a face. The dog regarded approach of the child as threat. Adults, of course, are guilty of this situation, they were obliged to expect consequences.
Any attack of a dog long is not forgotten. It not only a physical, but also mental trauma for the child. Fear of a dog sometimes remains for the rest of life.
The child can be traumatized under the name “cat`s scratch“ and playing with cats. As a result of such trauma the infection gets to lymph nodes, glands in an elbow and an axillary hollow bulk up, there is severe pain, the redness appears.
not to injure the kid and to keep at it love to animals, listen to a professional advice . do not leave to
- children with animals alone, you keep an eye on them constantly.
- Never allow children to take away something from a dog or to approach it when she eats.
- do not allow children to play with animals aggressive games: the cat can strongly scratch the child, the dog - to bite. Not under any circumstances do not allow children to approach
- dogs very close, to iron unfamiliar dogs, to feed them, to embrace. do not allow children to tease and torment with
- animals. Tell
- even to the most small children about rules of conduct with animals, about their habits.
Seems that for the lively child it is quite natural to fall. However it does not concern falling from a ladder, from a window or from the cart in shop.
Health of small children is threatened by falling from furniture, ladders, walkers, from carriages. It becomes the reason of a set of cases of inadvertent drawing injury as a result of which the child appears in emergency station. Every year only in Moscow about one hundred kids receive serious cherepno - brain injuries as a result of loss from only one carriages.
Moving on the house without parental supervision, children can suffer, having pulled off from a table and having dropped on itself various household appliances, heavy objects.
Small children become more often the victims of falling from a window, and those who are more senior are usually injured on playgrounds.“ Now at us even playgrounds build of reinforced concrete“, - professor Nemsadze complains.
The most dangerous objects at school are ladders and sports “goats“ with bars. Physicians allocate so-called “sports injuries“. In the summer they are generally connected with a skating and skateboards. Doctors warn that grazes from asphalt can become a source of infection with tetanus.
the Recommended measures:
- Keep the eyes glued from the baby when it is on a pelenalny little table, a bed, a sofa or a chair. To it there will be enough only a few seconds that, having begun to move, make a start legs from a surface and to fall.
As soon as the child will learn to turn over, it can fall from where it is necessary therefore the furniture should be supplied with a special side.
- do not come downstairs with a carriage in which the child sits, it can move and drop out. Exposing to
- a carriage with the child on a balcony, it is necessary to be sure that the child will not be able independently to get out of it if he wakes up when you will not be near. Your balcony has to be reliably protected from the objects falling from above.
- do not put furniture closely to a window. The small child will not reach a window sill, but can climb up it if he climbs on the furniture which is moved up to a window - a table, a chair or a sofa. Cannot leave to
- a carriage near the house. Icicles can fall in the ziyena - spring time from a roof in it, but it is even more dangerous when our fellow citizens throw out from windows everything, up to faulty TVs.
- you Drive the child only on such playgrounds where sheetings are used. It has to be the shaving layer not less than thirty centimeters, straw, sand, small gravel or the synthetic, extinguishing blows elastic materials.
- do not leave children unguarded on a swing - it is one of the most dangerous from the point of view of traumatism a type of entertainment.