The child - the oligophrenic person:“ It is incurable“ does not mean “is doomed“
of Mental retardation (or intellectual backwardness) - pathology which cannot be cured, it is shown at the birth and accompanies the child all his life. It is feature of development with which the little person should learn to live in the world, alas, which is not adapted for needs of physically disabled people. And the main objective which faces parents, doctors and teachers, - as much as possible to adapt such child to society.
the Term “intellectual backwardness“, or “mental retardation“ (a literal translation - “maloumy“), is applied in psychiatry since 1915. According to the definition accepted in domestic psychiatry, of mental retardation is the violation of mental development (first of all intellectual) connected with organic defeat of nervous system.
of Display of pathology and its diagnostics
different types of classification of intellectual backwardness Exist. In the American psychiatry allocate four degrees: easy, average, heavy and deep. On structure of violations of mental retardation is divided into 5 types, depending on what still complicated violation of intelligence.by
Among domestic psychiatrists division of intellectual backwardness into three degrees is extended: moronity > (easy), a deficiency of intellect (average) and an idiocy (heavy), and she is defined by em depending on the intelligence quotient (IQ). The child passes test and gains a certain number of points according to which the expert (the doctor, the psychologist) does the conclusion about degree of intellectual backwardness. But views of reliability of such way of diagnostics at different experts and at different psychiatric schools disperse.
is considered to be that children with easy degree of intellectual backwardness - moronity - are capable to seize the speech for communication with people around, but experience difficulties at the solution of intellectual tasks, understanding prichinno - the investigative relations, generalization. Those to whom the diagnosis a deficiency of intellect is made seize the speech in very small volume sufficient for expression of the elementary request. Besides, at them it is possible to create simple skills of self-service. As for children with an idiocy , they are not able to seize even the simplest skills of self-service and need leaving during all life. > However, despite rigid classification, it is very difficult to p to make to
the accurate diagnosis here. The matter is that it is seldom possible to speak about the isolated intellectual backwardness when the child lags behind in intellectual development and at the same time it has no deviations in all other spheres of mentality. Most often insufficiency of intelligence is combined with speech, emotional, motor violations, diseases of internals. At the same time lag of speech development can be caused by features of intelligence as development of the speech and thinking of the child happens on two parallel, interconnected lines which are at some point crossed and give rise to such education as speech thinking (or the intellectual speech) .
understand ability of the person to adapt to the changing environment conditions As the term “intelligence“. If for primitive people the task to adapt to the surrounding nature, to avoid a meeting with predatory animals and to get to itself food was actual, then in the modern world into the forefront adaptation to the social environment acts: in process of a growing the child learns to communicate with people around, to report to them about the desires, and also masters the games peculiar to his age. Later other tasks are set for it (game becomes complicated, obligations for the house appear, classes in preparation for school begin).to the Kid who does not use the speech cannot offer
standard tests and tasks, with it it is impossible to have a talk, difficult to play. The expert does the conclusion about what at the child of mental retardation, but cannot define her extent, structure of violation, and it is necessary correctly to give help to the child.
It is frequent the picture characteristic of intellectual backwardness it is connected with absolutely other, nonintellectual violations. For example, the child cannot show the opportunities from - for violations of the speech (knowing the correct answer to a question, it cannot express the thought, explain as why it does) or features emotionally - the strong-willed sphere (to him it is uninteresting to interact with the expert, he does not answer questions, or says that he knows nothing). Recently it is recognized that for the exact diagnosis there are not enough test results - it is important to estimate such factors as extent of adaptation of the child to life in society, its ability to self-service, communication. Education level of the child is not less important: many children do not show good results when testing from - for insufficiency of knowledge and simple inability to perform the teacher`s tasks.
owing to these, and also some other reasons children with different violations, for example with alaliy (violation of the speech) or early children`s autism get to group mentally retarded (feature emotionally - the strong-willed sphere at which difficulties of communication can be combined with a high intelligence and creative abilities). Differentiation of violation of development and pedagogical neglect which can lead to considerable disadaptation and the lag in development which is not caused by the biological reasons - very important problem of diagnostics. In each of such cases a certain help which is often inefficient at other violations is necessary for the child.
Only not isolation!
In our country from Soviet period the system of separation of “special children“ from “normal“ society existed. As a result even children with rather easy violations quickly enough turned into the disabled people incapable of independent life. Kids with the diagnosis of “mental retardation“ at such approach are forced to live in the closed world, they do not see the healthy peers, do not communicate with them, interests, hobbies of ordinary children are alien to them. In turn, healthy kids do not see too those who do not conform to “standard“, and, having met on the street of the physically disabled person, not: know how to treat him how to react to its emergence in the “healthy“ world.can claim
Now that tradition to divide children on degree of intellectual backwardness and “to reject“ those who do not fit into a certain framework (to brand “not trainee“, to place in a boarding school, special school), became outdated and does not lead to positive result. If the child with similar pathology lives, then the situation stimulates him to master different skills, he seeks to communicate with peers, to play, study. However in practice occurs so that the kid with the diagnosis of “mental retardation“ is refused to be admitted to usual kindergarten, school and offer training in specialized institution or treatment.
Often such child is hospitalized. The local pediatrician insists on hospitalization and the administration of child care facilities demands the conclusion of the medical commission.the aspiration to help it is characteristic
Of any expert dealing with such kid, using for this purpose all available ways. Therefore if the doctor, then the main, a way of the help habitual and available to it - hospitalization for inspection and treatment of associated diseases (including nervous system) which, as a rule, occur at children with an oligofreniya works with the child. But at the same time the child gets to the closed hospital world where he is surrounded by the same kids incapable independently to seize necessary skills, whether it be an opportunity to communicate fully with peers and to master the school program (at easy degree of pathology) or the child will not be able to learn to eat with a spoon from a plate, to put on. The basic that offers the child medical institution, is a treatment. He does not receive the qualified pedagogical help, timely training. And if receives, then in the minimum volume. In a family the kid can watch the elder brother or the sister, for neighbour`s children and seeks to learn to play, speak, read the same as they. In hospital the child has no such example, and he together other children is content with primitive games and communication with the help of gestures.
Of course if the kid was hospitalized for a certain time (for carrying out a course of treatment or diagnostics), then upon return home it will have an opportunity somewhat to fill a lack of communication, care and the correct training. But there are children who live in such closed system constantly, are what parents refused, having learned that the child was born “patient“, “not such as all“.
the Family and school
was outlined Recently a tendency to raise children with different violations of development of the house, in a family. If earlier (20 - 30 years ago) mother in maternity hospital persuaded to leave the “defective“ child, to hand over it in establishment of social security, then now there are more and more children - oligophrenic persons it appears under the care of the loving parents ready to fight for their development and adaptation in society. By means of close people such child has an opportunity to apply for education, treatment (in case it is necessary), communication with peers.shows
of the Practician that even the “heaviest“ children on condition of the correct treatment of them seek for communication and activity. The kids who are not able to speak, badly understanding the speech of people around with interest look at children and adults around, begin to be interested in toys which their peers play. Through games simple, available to them interaction with the teacher, and then - training of the child in those skills which will be for it necessary subsequently begins (is a spoon, to drink from a cup, to put on).
Of course, it is impossible to count that the kid with heavy violation of intelligence will be able to overcome this problem completely. Work of different experts (the teacher, the psychologist, the doctor and others) is directed to giving to the child chance as much as possible to develop those abilities which it is possible. It is quite good if the child, long time of not paying attention to the people surrounding it and objects, begins with way available to it to react to the taking place events - then mother will be able to understand that it is necessary for her kid that he loves or why suddenly began to cry. Remarkably, if the child with superficial violation of intelligence is able to be admitted to mass school near the house where the attentive teacher with understanding will treat its problems and will help to master part of the program available to it, to keep in group of schoolmates, without having turned into the derelict and “the cool little fool“. It is good if the kid who was not speaking till seven years learns to use the speech for communication, will be able to explain to mother what he wants.
It is right on work
According to the existing legislation, all citizens have the right for work. Disabled people - not an exception. Really, they have the right to receive a workplace, to perform that work of which are capable, and to get paid for it. > In practice it it is very difficult for p to realize
. Really, in order that the physically disabled person could work, special conditions are necessary. The disabled person will much longer do what ordinary people carry out easily, with the minimum expenses of time and forces, perhaps, will make more mistakes, he should have a rest to a thicket. Naturally, employers prefer to take on vacant positions of healthy people. Means, except the right of the disabled person for work also the mechanism of realization of this right is necessary. For example, workplaces on which will take willingly physically disabled people.
the point of view that the disabled person does not need to work - it not such as everything, to it is difficult to perform the elementary operations therefore society has to employ it not, and contents, privileges and release from various duties Exists. Such approach can discriminate the physically disabled person only. All children from early age seek to grow and become someone, they dream of career of the astronaut, teacher etc. Then these aspirations change, and at some point, having matured, young people choose to themselves a profession. The society giving to the disabled person only privileges seeks to deprive of it this dream, and together with it - possibilities of personal growth, respect for itself. He is doomed to remain forever the child, the consumer receiving housing, food, clothes from society and to give nothing in exchange.Such situation needs to be changed
, and it is necessary to begin with the attitude of society towards “other“ people. The conclusion of medical commission “is disabled“ does not mean that the disabled person has no right to work. No, it specifies rather that he is not capable to work on a usual workplace and special conditions for work are necessary for it.
It is important that for each child - “normal“, gifted, with limited opportunities - milestones which it will pass in life were in advance defined. Parents have to be sure that for their kid there is a kindergarten in which he will play and study communication with children, school where he will gain knowledge necessary for it, work which he will perform with pleasure and with feeling that it is necessary to society. And division of people on so-called “normal“, “gifted“ and “disabled people“ has to be not criterion of “sorting out“ of one and advances of others, and in the way of the choice of their course of life.