Whether some love more hotly than
you Love summer as I love it?. Probably, most of Russians will answer this question in the affirmative, despite so-called planned cutoffs of hot water which, as a rule, last about three weeks. These days we sharply endure deprivation of one of the main benefits of a civilization. Basins - saucepans - buckets - huge bucket electric heaters - here a traditional three-week arsenal of the average Muscovite who found on doors of the entrance the announcement of scheduled maintenance on a heating system. And what to speak about inhabitants of those Russian regions where lack of hot water even in winter time became nearly a norm...
Types of water heaters
Heaters are gas or electric (about electric water heaters and the speech in this article will go). The last, in turn, are divided by a design on flowing and accumulative .Flowing heaters
In flowing heaters water passes
through a heating element and from the crane hot (to 60 degrees) water at once flows. These devices are compact, it is easy to install them and (if necessary) to reinstall on the new place. The fact that they are vysokomoshchna - from 3,7 kW to 27 kW therefore they can be used belongs to their minuses where the electric network is calculated on high power - otherwise will constantly beat out traffic jams from you. Water heaters more powerfully 12 kW demand a three-phase network, and in the majority of houses single-phase is, as a rule, used.
Producers of flowing heaters pay much attention to their safety (controllers disconnect TEN at excess of admissible level of temperature or in the absence of water supply). Recently flowing water heaters with an electronic control system in which the microprocessor by means of sensors distinguishes temperature of the arriving water, its expense were available for sale, and depending on the set temperature of heating chooses the optimum power of heating.
Flowing water heaters are hydraulic or electronic . In hydraulic water temperature depends on how the crane is strongly open. The heating element in such water heaters does not contact directly to water - it is located outside on all length of the heat exchanger in which water proceeds.
In electronic water heaters temperature of the coming-out water does not depend on the water temperature entering. Water with constantly set temperature follows from the crane. In these devices the heating element in the form of mobile spirals from stainless steel is placed in water.
Flowing water heaters are single-phase (220 - 230 V) which are used at the power of water heater up to 12 kW and are suitable for providing city apartments with hot water in a warm season, and three-phase (380 - 400 B) which are used at the power from 12 to 27 kW and can provide with hot water several water intaking points.
Accumulative water heaters
Accumulative (or capacitor) water heaters or boilers are the heatisolated capacities volume, as a rule, from 5 to 1000 l which are structurally reminding a thermos with heating. The store not only heats water to 35 - 85 degrees, but also supports it in the automatic mode (at qualitative water heaters temperature drop does not exceed 0,2 - 0,5 degrees an hour). When you open the crane, heated water follows from a tank, and on a vacant place the next portion of cold water comes to a tank. Time of heating of water in these water heaters depends on the power of TENA and volume of a tank.accumulative water heaters are divided
On design features into open (or free-flow) and closed (or pressure head).Pressure head water heaters make
of strong materials that is necessary to hold pressure which creates thermal expansion of the heated water. Free-flow water heaters usually have easier cases since excess of water from them merges through a special tube in a bathtub, a sink or a toilet bowl.
Depending on volume accumulative water heaters can be wall the small capacity (5 - 15 l), wall the average capacity (30 - 150 l) and floor (200 l and more).
Liouba TENG, shipped in water over time is exposed to scaling that leads to decrease in its thermolysis, and, therefore, to growth of an expense of the electric power which is spent for water heating. For protection against a scum near TENG install the anode in the form of a magnesian core. Being dissolved, it “causes fire“ (i.e. corrosion) on itself(himself). The anode is changed in process of wearability, i.e. at its reduction to 1/3 from initial volume (as a rule, the term of its service makes 1 - 2 years - depending on hardness of water and intensity of operation).by
In some water heaters of Austria Email applies titanic Correx Anod with external power supply. Unlike magnesian it is not dissolved over time, and used during all term of operation of a water heater.In apartments where the counter on water is installed, the double-circuit water heater will be pertinent
: it automatically joins at approach of a cheap night tariff and heats water “for emergency“.
Electronic water heaters are equipped with the liquid crystal display, and control of them is exercised by means of moisture-proof remote controls from distance to 30 - 50 meters.If you choose by
an accumulative water heater for “secure“ of stationary supply of hot water on a case of temporary shutdowns, to you the bank of 10 - 30 liters suffices. For long-term hot water supply of the city apartment the heater with a volume of tank of 50 - 75 liters, and is necessary for a country house - 100 - 200 liters. By the way, if you choose an accumulative water heater for a country house, then pay attention to presence at it of such useful function as the mode of prevention of freezing (usually it is designated on the control panel of the pictogram “snowflake“).for
to prolong service life of a flowing water heater, it is necessary
- to adhere to the optimum temperature of heating of water to 60 degrees; to delete with
- a scum with TENA;
- at least once a year to check a condition of the magnesian anode and to replace it at strong wear; if the heater is not used by
- for a long time, it is necessary to disconnect it from an electric network and to block the crane on the highway of cold water supply.
So, “protochnik“ or “store“?
|of the Flowing water heater||the Accumulative water heater|
|Instantly heats the water passing through it (+)||Needs to wait for heating of water in a tank (-)|
|restrictions on amount of the consumed water (+)||the Amount of the consumed water is limited to tank volume (-)|
|only in a water heater installation site (-)||water supply from a tank to several points of its consumption|
|Water has to arrive under the pressure of (-)Can work with||even at absence water supply system (+)|
Starting the choice of a water heater, you, first of all, it is necessary to consider power supply of your apartment since installation of the powerful electric device - a flowing water heater - involves certain problems.
In houses with gas stoves, most likely, the greatest possible load of a network - about 3 kW. Therefore, you should change conducting from the general guard, to change the counter and the introduction automatic machine, and also to install additional “automatic machine“ for a water heater. Together all these expenses considerably will exceed the cost of a flowing water heater.
In houses with electric stoves a permissible load on a network - about 8 kW therefore you can connect a powerful flowing water heater to conducting for a plate, but should use these devices to you in turn.
Advantage of stores in this case that at their connection you will have no above-mentioned problems: so, for 2 - a kilowatt accumulative water heater (usually it is water heaters with a capacity up to 150 l) the ordinary socket on 220 V. A here quite approaches big stores for which the power of 4 - 6 kW is used, of course, will demand additional conducting.a certain pressure of water in system of giving is necessary for
For connection of a flowing water heater that prevents boiling of water and an overheat of TENA. As a rule, inclusion of a flowing water heater happens in water consumption range via the device of 1,5 - 3 l/min.
the opinion that flowing water heaters are too gluttonous Occurs, i.e. they consume bigger quantity of the electric power, than accumulative water heaters, however it not so. According to laws of physics, heating of a certain amount of water - in “protochnik“ or in “store“ - requires identical amount of electric energy. Just flowing water heater, having big power, heats water instantly, and accumulative does it “slowly and sadly“:-). And because in “store“ water tends to cool down, additional energy on maintenance of temperature is necessary for it.
As the accumulative water heater has very impressive sizes, it will require the place, and our bathrooms, as a rule, “squares“ of the owners, alas, do not indulge. Therefore before buying a high-capacity water heater, surely check whether there will be enough for it place, for example, of a bathroom or in a santekhshkafa. Accumulative water heaters of small volume (5 - 10 l) can be mounted under or over a sink (sink).“ Stores“ small volume happen to the lower and top connection (by the way, it makes related them with fellows - “protochnik“): the first are established OVER a sink or a sink (connecting branch pipes at them “look“ down), and the second - are mounted UNDER a sink or a sink (their branch pipes, respectively, are directed up). However, some firms offer buyers water heaters - double-dealing fellows (for example, a series M water heater the mini 5 model from Polaris).
At the choice flowing a water heater needs to be guided by its productivity, i.e. by the number of the liters of water heated in 1 minute. The approximate scheme of calculation is as follows: we divide value of power on 2 (when heating to 25 degrees). It is necessary for us for washing of ware or washing streams of 2 - 4 l/min., a shower - 5 - 8 l/min., acceptance of a bathtub - 8 - 10 l/min. Therefore, for a kitchen sink and a wash basin the 4 - 7 kW flowing water heater, is necessary for a shower - 10 - 16 kW, for a bathtub - 16 - 20 Kw. However if you use a water heater only in the summer, during a season of summer “preventive“ cutoffs of hot water, then it is possible to choose also less powerful water heater since water is heated-up on an entrance already to 12 - 16 degrees in the summer.
At the choice of a water heater surely pay attention to such important aspect as a protection class is degree of electric safety of devices on the International class of protection of IP which is designated by two figures.the First figure indicates
- protection of contacts or hit of foreign matters:
- protection is absent;
- protection against casual contact of a big site of a surface of a body with current carrying parts. There is no protection against deliberate access to these parts. Protection against hit of foreign solid bodies not less than 52,5 mm;
- protection against a possibility of contact of fingers with current carrying parts and foreign matters with a diameter not less than 12,5 mm;
- protection against contact of the tool, a wire or other similar bodies which diameter does not exceed 2,5 mm.
- the Second figure - protection against water:
- protection is absent;
- protection against the drops of condensate falling vertically on a cover;
- protection against the drops of water falling on a cover at an angle no more than 15 degrees to a vertical;
- protection against a rain which drops fall on a cover at an angle not less than 60 degrees to a vertical;
- protection against the splashes of water falling on a water heater cover at any angle;
- protection against the water streams falling from all directions.
the question Price
At cost the water heaters presented at the Russian market can be divided into 3 price groups conditionally:
- the house-keeper - a class: water heaters of firms Baxi, Atmor, ISEA, General Polaris, Tesy, etc.;
- middle class: water heaters of firms Ariston, Electrolux, Gorenje, Siemens, Thermex, Lorenzo Vasso, etc.;
- business - a class: water heaters of Stiebel Eltron, Austria Email, Vaillant, ACV, DeDietrich, etc.
On the Russian market more than thirty firms - producers. Treat the choice of this device with all responsibility - check documents for the chosen model (the certificate of conformity, the hygienic conclusion), make sure available services guarantee and service: some firms will be able to repair your water heater only after receipt from - for borders of necessary spare parts, and others have well equipped repair base.