Rus Articles Journal

Prick or drops?

we Do a poliomyelitis inoculation

begin to enter a poliomyelitis Vaccine to kids from first months of life, often combining it with other inoculations. But whether really it “is so harmless“? Also its role in formation of immunity of the child to such dangerous disease how poliomyelitis is how important?

Poliomyelitis (from Greek polios - gray, belonging to gray substance of a head and spinal cord; from Greek myelos - a spinal cord) is a serious infectious disease which is caused by viruses of poliomyelitis 1, 2, 3 types. It is characterized by defeat of nervous system (mainly gray substance of a spinal cord) that leads to paralyzes 1 , and also - to the inflammatory changes of a mucous membrane of intestines and nasopharynx proceeding under “mask“ of ORZ or intestinal infection.

Epidemic flashes are most often connected by

with a virus of poliomyelitis of 1 type.

the Disease is transmitted to

of the Way of infection by

from the person to the person at conversation, sneezing or through the polluted objects, food, water. A source of an infection is the sick person. Due to high transmissibility the infection quickly extends, but suspicion that the outbreak of poliomyelitis began, arises when note the first case of paralysis.

the Incubatory period of a disease (from the infection moment before emergence of the first symptoms) lasts 7 - 14 days (from 3 to 35 days can fluctuate). Viruses get to an organism through mucous membranes of a nasopharynx or intestines, breed there, then get into blood and reach nervous cages head, but most often a spinal cord, and destroy them. It also defines emergence of paralyzes.

of the Form of a course of poliomyelitis

Virus infection carrier state

If the virus does not go beyond a nasopharynx and intestines, then clinically the disease is not shown at the infected person. However itself caught is an infection source for others.

Not paralytic forms

It is rather favorable option of a course of disease.

If to a virus manages to get into blood, then the disease proceeds as ORZ (with fever, an indisposition, cold, pain and reddening in a throat, appetite violation) or sharp intestinal infection (with the speeded-up diluted chair).

Other form - developing of serous meningitis (defeat of covers of a brain). There is fever, a headache, vomiting, tension of muscles of a neck therefore it is impossible to bring closer a chin to a breast (the symptoms demonstrating involvement of brain covers in inflammatory process), twitchings and muscle pain.

Paralytic form

This heaviest display of poliomyelitis. The illness in this case begins sharply, with high temperature, an indisposition, refusal of food, in half of cases there are symptoms of damage of the top airways (cough, cold) and intestines (a liquid chair), and in 1 - 3 day symptoms of defeat of nervous system join (a headache, extremity, back pains). Patients are sleepy, reluctantly change position of a body from - for pains, they note muscular twitchings. It is the preparalytic period which lasts 1 - 6 days. Then temperature decreases and paralyzes develop. There is it very quickly, within 1 - 3 days or even several hours. One extremity can be paralyzed, but both hands, and legs are much more often immobilized. Also defeats of respiratory muscles are possible that leads to breath violation. In rare instances there are paralyzes of face muscles. The paralytic period can proceed about two weeks, and then the recovery period which lasts year and more gradually begins. In most cases the complete recovery does not occur, the extremity remains shortened, the atrophy (disorder of food of fabrics) and change of muscles remains. It should be noted that paralyzes arise only at 1% which caught.

Diagnosis of a disease

the Diagnosis is established by

on the basis of characteristic external displays of an illness and epidemiological prerequisites: for example, in the presence of infected or patients in the patient`s environment, and also - in summertime. The matter is that in hot days people (and especially children) bathe much, and the virus can catch, having swallowed water from an open reservoir. Besides, data of laboratory research allow to diagnose poliomyelitis (for example, allocation of a virus from nasopharyngeal slime, a calla and the patient`s blood, research of cerebrospinal fluid). But these researches cost much and are carried out not in each hospital and furthermore to policlinic. For carrying out similar analyses the network of the centers for laboratory diagnosis of poliomyelitis where material from the patient is delivered for studying is created.

we Establish to

protection

Considering that poliomyelitis - the viral infection and the specific therapy influencing these viruses no, the only effective remedy of the prevention of an illness is an inoculation.

To vaccination against poliomyelitis are applied by two preparations: oral (from armor. oris - the mouth relating to a mouth) a live poliomiyelitny vaccine (OPV) containing the weakened changed live viruses of poliomyelitis which solution drip in a mouth, and the inactivated poliomiyelitny vaccine (IPV) containing the killed wild viruses of poliomyelitis which is entered by means of injections.

Both vaccines contain 3 types of a virus of poliomyelitis. That is protect from all existing “variations“ of these infection. However, IPV so far in our country do not make. But there is a foreign vaccine of IMOVAKS FULLY which can be used for an inoculation. Besides, IPV is a part of a vaccine of TETPAKOK (the combined vaccine for prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, poliomyelitis). Both of these preparations are used on commercial terms at the request of parents.

can be entered by

of the Vaccine against poliomyelitis along with 2 immunoglobulin and any other vaccines, except for BTsZh.

the Oral poliomiyelitny vaccine - liquid substance of pink color, is bitter - salty on taste.

introduction Method : an instillation in a mouth, to kids - on lymphoid tissue of a throat, to children of advanced age - on a surface of palatal almonds where immunity begins to be formed. In these parts there are no flavoring nipples, and the child will not feel unpleasant taste of a vaccine. Otherwise there will be a plentiful salivation, the kid will swallow a preparation, it will get with saliva into a stomach and there can partially collapse. The inoculation will be less effective. OPV dig in from a disposable plastic dropper or by means of the disposable syringe (without needle).

the Dose depends on concentration of a preparation: 4 drops or 2 drops. If the kid srygnut after receiving a vaccine, procedure is repeated. After repeated vomiting the vaccine is not entered any more, and the following dose is given in one and a half months. Within an hour after introduction of OPV it is impossible to feed and give to drink to the child.

the Scheme of immunization

the First three inoculations according to a calendar of vaccination carry out

by

in 3, 4,5 and 6 months, revaccinations once in 18, 20 months and in 14 years further follow. It is considered that only 5 introductions of a poliomiyelitny live vaccine completely guarantee absence of diseases of paralytic poliomyelitis at a meeting with an infection. If at immunization a schedule of inoculations is broken and intervals between introductions of a vaccine turned out longer, then anew it is not necessary to impart the child, just it is necessary to continue introduction of all missing inoculations.

Reaction of an organism

After introduction of OPV vaktsinalny reactions (local or the general), as a rule, are absent. In extremely exceptional cases emergence of subfebrilny temperature (to 37,5 °C) later after an inoculation is possible 5 - 14 days. At children of early age increase of a chair which remains within 1 - 2 days after an inoculation and takes place without treatment is occasionally observed. These reactions are not complications.

If violations of a chair have the expressed character (in Calais there is a slime, greens, blood streaks and so forth) also proceed long time, it is display of intestinal infection which on time incidentally coincided with vaccination.

with

As the inoculation “works“

the Oral live poliomiyelitny vaccine is long (till 1 month) remains in intestines and as all live vaccines, the immunity almost identical to that which arises after transferring of the infection forms in an organism of the imparted person. At the same time antibodies (protective proteins) in blood and on mucous intestines (so-called sekretorny immunity), not allowing a “wild“ virus to get into an organism are synthesized. Besides, specific protective cages which are capable to distinguish viruses of poliomyelitis in an organism are formed and to destroy them. Important and other property: while the vaccinal virus lives in intestines, it does not start up a “wild“ virus of poliomyelitis there. Therefore in regions where there is poliomyelitis, newborn children directly in maternity hospital impart a live vaccine to protect the baby on the first month of life from infection. Such inoculation does not form long immunity therefore it call “zero“. And the first vaccinating dose to the child is entered in 2 months and continue to impart him according to the full scheme.

the live poliomyelitis vaccine has one more unexpected property - it stimulates interferon synthesis (antiviral substance) in an organism. Therefore indirectly such inoculation can protect from flu and other viral respiratory infections.

of Complication

the Only thing heavy, but, fortunately, very rare complication on an inoculation of OPV is vaktsinoassotsiirovanny poliomyelitis (VAP) . This disease can develop at the first, is more rare - the second and is extremely rare - at the third introduction of a live vaccine, in those cases when it was imparted to the child with a congenital immunodeficiency or AIDS - to the patient in an immunodeficiency stage. VAP and congenital malformations zheludochno - an intestinal path contribute to emergence. In other cases this complication does not develop. The persons who had vaktsinoassotsiirovanny poliomyelitis have to continue further inoculations, but only the inactivated poliomiyelitny vaccine (IPV).

the Inactivated poliomiyelitny vaccine is issued in the liquid state, packaged in the syringe - doses on 0,5 ml.

introduction Method : injection. To kids till 18 months - hypodermically to the subscapular area (perhaps, in a shoulder) or intramuscularly in a hip, to children of more advanced age - in a shoulder. No restrictions on time of food and drink are required.

the Scheme of immunization

Primary course of inoculations are made by 2 or 3 introductions of a vaccine with an interval of 1,5 - 2 months. Immunity is created also after 2 - x introductions, but in some cases it is more preferable to enter a vaccine three times. It is especially important for children with the reduced immunity which high doses or big frequency rate of introduction of a preparation for formation of the resistant immune answer are required. The kids with chronic diseases, immunodeficiency and also who underwent an operation on removal of a spleen mean.

carry out by

In 1 year after the third introduction the first revaccination. The second is provided in 5 years, more revaccinations are not required.

Reaction of an organism

After introduction of IPV 5 - 7% imparted can have local vaktsinalny reactions (that is not complication of an inoculation) in the form of the hypostasis and redness which are not exceeding 8 cm in the diameter. In 1 - 4% of cases the general vaktsinalny reactions in the form of short-term low rise in temperature, concern of the child in the first - after an inoculation are noted the second day.

As the inoculation

with

“works“ For introduction of the inactivated polnomiyelitny vaccine for the imparted person antibodies in blood are developed. However on mucous intestines they are practically not formed. Also the protective cages capable to distinguish and destroy in an organism poliomyelitis viruses together with the activator as it happens at inoculation of OPV are not synthesized. It is certain minus of IPV.

However when using of the inactivated vaccine never vaktsinoassotsiirovanny poliomyelitis happens, and children can enter it safely with an immunodeficiency.

the Side effect of IPV, seldom or never, allergic rash can be p>

of Complication.

Attention! The persons who had poliomyelitis need to continue further vaccination as the repeated disease can be caused by other type of a virus.

not imparted, be careful!

the People who do not have poliomyelitis inoculations (regardless of age) who at the same time suffer from an immunodeficiency, can catch from the imparted child and ache with vaktsinoassotsiirovanny poliomyelitis (VAP).

by

described cases when from the imparted children the parents sick with AIDS caught, in an immunodeficiency stage, and also - relatives with primary immunodeficiency or those who receive the drugs suppressing immune system (at treatment of oncological diseases). For prevention of similar situations of the child it is recommended to impart the inactivated poliomiyelitny vaccine , and also to wash hands after a podmyvaniye of the kid and not to kiss imparted on the lips.

Vaccination against poliomyelitis, as well as any other inoculation if it is made in time and by rules, will help fragile to the baby to resist to a serious and dangerous illness. So, will make the child stronger, will strengthen his organism and will relieve parents of many problems and tests which usually the family of the seriously ill kid should endure.