Blind child: development of adaptive opportunities and a way of socialization
In a family the blind kid was born... Understanding of this fact - the most severe stress for his parents. Similar experiences are, as a rule, aggravated with alarm for the future of the child: how this defect on intellectual and physical health will affect? Whether the kid will be able normally to develop, study, to communicate with other people? The answer to all these questions in many respects depends on that how strong and patient will be parents who should - adapt hard test of the blind child to normal, full-fledged life.
Unfortunately, only some diseases of an organ of vision (for example, far-sightedness, short-sightedness) quite successfully recover. As for congenital diseases of the visual analyzer - for example, a partial atrophy of an optic nerve (partial defeat of optic nerves on which there go signals from eyes to the visual centers of a cerebral cortex), especially at deep-premature children - that similar pathologies will practically not respond to treatment and sharply limit visual opportunities of the child.Influence of a blindness on the general development
To two - three months of life the baby with deep violations of sight on nature of reactions and behavior almost does not differ in
from the able to see child of the same age. And only after this period pathology begins to prove considerably. Kids lag behind peers in development of skills of mobility (turns from a back on a stomach and back, attempts to sit down, and further and to go independently), at them the thinking in a slowed-up way develops, there are difficulties in attempts of mastering subject actions.
Besides, decrease in visual functions negatively influences mental, physical and emotional development that is expressed in small mobility, the lowered mood, a tendency to isolation, “immersion in itself“ and, as a result, leads to ignoring of contacts with other children.
For work - from first weeks
Many parents of blind and visually impaired children, seeking to solve the arisen problem with the help of medicine, lose sight of need to pay more attention to physical, mental, musical and intellectual development of the kids. It is worth to remember also that first of all the child needs maternal love, attention, and also understanding of its problems and boundless patience from relatives.the Nature awarded with
the person besides visual and other feelings: acoustical, olfactory, propriotseptivny (proceeding from muscles and sinews), tactile (feelings from a touch, palpation). All this allows the baby to compensate in a varying degree the deficiency of information on world around connected with lack of sight. Parents are obliged to help it, having created the adequate environment allowing to develop sense organs.
Since the birth of such kid is recommended to be dressed in a romper suit and a free baby`s undershirt, hardly to swaddle him inadmissibly .
For stimulation of tactile feelings needs to put the child on fabric surfaces with various texture. It can be silk, cotton, velvet, velveteen, tulle and other fabrics. Previously the kid is recommended to be undressed - so he will better feel a surface skin. Making the movements available to it on this or that surface, the baby gains an impression about surrounding space, it forms understanding of how objects move as their ratio and position in space change, ability to understand communication between causes and effects develops. It is useful to make the special blanket sewed from rags of fabrics with various texture for the kid. At the edges it is desirable to sew ringlets, buttons, balls from rattles, strings, bells, etc. It is necessary to put the child on a blanket so that he was in different provisions - on a stomach, on a back or on one side.
If the kid has a residual sight , then fabric pieces, nearby with each other, have to have not only tactile contrast (to differ on texture) rather markedly, but also visual (for example, one black and velvet, another - white and silk). Besides, it is necessary to give the classes directed to formation of visual attention. It is necessary to begin them as soon as possible as in the first months of life the visual system undergoes considerable changes and is the most sensitive to external incentives - to light and color. To draw attention of the child with deep violations of sight, it is expedient to use the brightest objects. The most successful of them are the small lamp (a lamp, fluorescent toys), brilliant objects, pictures and objects with contrast drawing, the enlarged images. If it is not enough combination of contrast and movement, it is possible to try to draw attention of the baby to a subject with any sound: by voice, a rattle melody percussion in a subject.by
It is come into emotional contact
With the birth the child is very sensitive to influences of the adult who looks after him. Are most significant for the baby of a touch and of caress . At the same time the movements of mother have to be quiet and slow. Sharp, inexact, uncertain gestures of the adult bring the baby to a state of discomfort and alarm, he can become uneasy and whining. The kid does not understand words yet, but already feels tone of a voice, tempo of speech. Therefore during feeding, and also changing clothes of the kid or being engaged with it, it is necessary to talk to the child tenderly. It is not necessary to allow the kid to shout too long. And of course it is necessary to respond immediately kindly to all attempts of the child to communicate though they can be reduced only to the fact that he not movably listens, does the uncertain movements, makes some sounds.
developed a vestibular mechanismby
Small blind children without special occupations move a little therefore their vestibular mechanism develops slowly. And it, in turn, slows down development of active movements. To compensate lag, the kid needs to be taken as often as possible on hands and everywhere to move together with it . It is the best of all to do it during walks. The child can be in a special backpack (“kangaroo“). It is desirable to carry the baby on hands or in a backpack and when performing easy household economic chores. Moving together with mother, the kid makes the passive movements which promote development of its vestibular mechanism. Besides, they provide good corporal contact between mother and the kid, and it is so necessary for the blind child!
Similar joint movements needs to be made every day, at least until the weight of the kid allows mother to carry it.
Acquaintance to world around
At the blind child for obvious reasons does not arise requirements to lift and keep head up, give hands to toys and surrounding objects, to feel them, to creep or go, surveying surrounding space. Therefore to knowledge of the world at such kid parents have to develop aspiration.
the Search behavior and games with mother are initial, but extremely necessary stage on the way from early social attachment (parents, members of household) to further social adaptation of the child in kindergarten, school and. etc. For achievement of this purpose it is necessary to encourage any attempts of the kid to the movement and independence (always under supervision of adults) as its personal, real experience brings much more benefit, than any verbal descriptions. And other sense organs will become conductors in world around.
Touch plays a huge role in the course of acquaintance of the blind kid to surrounding objects. Hands replace to the blind person sight, with their help he receives, idea of these or those objects. It is necessary to encourage desire of the blind child to use the hands for inspection of various objects and materials. At the same time parents of course have to understand that the kid himself will not begin to be interested in many things until he is not told about them, - he simply does not see them! Showing to the child something, adults have to operate his hands, imposing on them the, and at the same time to tell what color a subject what its form, for what it serves and as to use it . It is necessary to accustom the kid to survey objects systematically, using both hands (one hand, for example, holds ware, and another finds a toy on a table and puts it in ware).
It is natural, the baby needs to be warned about danger if it is going to touch something hot or very cold. Otherwise, having been frightened of unexpected feeling, the child will begin to be afraid to use the hands for “examining“ of world around.
Training the kid in this or that movement, it is necessary to stand behind a back of the child and to do everything together with it. If at the same time to be opposite, the movement will turn out mirror and it will be difficult for child to apprehend it. Besides, adults have to tell the blind kid about in what they are engaged at present that occurs around constantly. Thus they will create prerequisites to establishment of substantial speech contact with the child.
Hearing . Acoustical images of the subject world give the chance to kids with deep violations of sight to react to irritants, to correlate them to objects and according to it to organize the behavior. Talking to the child, it is necessary to call him by name, to explain who talks to it. And it is obligatory to warn before any manifestation, unexpected for it. For example, before touching the kid with a hand. Otherwise to it it can be unpleasant or he will be frightened.
Using possibilities of acoustical perception, the blind child can be trained in to the hvatatelny movements . To grab the sounding subject, such kid needs to localize the purpose acoustically. However, by means of hearing it cannot control a trajectory of the movement of hands towards this purpose. Blind children, before adapting the provision of brushes of the hands for the size and a form of a subject, have to investigate at first it taktilno (to the touch). But eventually the child has to understand that this or that subject exists though it cannot be felt and it does not make sounds. to Parents needs to teach the kid to be defined aurally where the toy fell, or to find the disappeared objects to the touch . For this purpose the child needs to give an opportunity most to find his things which fell to a floor, prompting, where exactly they are. If something in the house is rearranged on other place, it is necessary to report about it to the child.
One more moment to which it is necessary to pay attention: an arrangement of objects it is necessary to call the different directions in space and as much as possible specifically . Such concepts as “there“, “far“, “here“, the kid does not perceive. Determining the subject sizes for the blind child, proceed from the sizes of a body of the kid. For example, “it same size as your hand“.
Formation of acoustical perception, together with motivation of the kid to dialogue, communication, provides activity of speech activity of the child. And it becomes further the most important factor of partial compensation of a blindness.Music too will help
Value of musical images with education of the blind child, and especially their influence on development of functions of a brain, it is difficult to overestimate. Therefore from the very beginning parents have to induce the blind kid to occupations by a vocal and music. Already at chest age for the baby it is necessary to organize short (5 - 15 minutes) daily “sessions“, unostentatiously acquainting him with rhythmical quiet music with a beautiful melody.
at the same time can shake slightly the baby on hands or to help it to jump up (and it is desirable, to intone - singing along). It is important, however, that after such musical “five-minutes“ the child remained not in silence and isolation, and in the atmosphere of natural household sounds - voices of mother, her steps on the apartment, shouts of children on the street, noise of trams or the teapot which is beginning to boil on a plate, etc., adapting thereby to the world surrounding it.
Together with all
It is important that the child constantly participated in daily occupations of a family . It will help it to gain an impression how when and how there are these or those events, and later it will begin to reproduce them in the games, gradually acquiring certain household skills. At the same time adults have to allow the kid to act independently, having created for him a safe situation and having provided good control. Things in the house should be held on strictly certain places about which the child has to know. Then it can allow to bring together independently them in the apartment and to return on the place. Of course, the kid will hardly manage to cope with instructions well at once. But adults surely have to praise it for any manifestation of independence. And all flaws can be corrected later.to
to Development of independence of adults is also promoted by practice owing to which the child has to have in a family “the task“ corresponding to its age and a stage of development. It raises a self-assessment of the kid, he has a desire to cope with more difficult tasks. It is natural before providing a certain independence to the blind child, parents have to provide him safe and comfortable conditions in the house - to make inaccessible for the kid electric devices, medicines, open windows, window leaves and a balcony, sources of high temperature, etc. But the most important - to promote formation at the baby of feeling of anticipation of personal danger. This feeling is useful to the child it is time to go beyond a home later when comes.
Attention - to physical development
Lag of the blind or visually impaired child in motive development affects also its game activity. At such children the primitive, monotonously repeating actions with objects can long remain. The reason of emergence of these persuasive movements is that the kid just is not able to occupy himself with something more interesting. However this manifestation of monotony and limitation can be prevented if to involve the child in interesting game.
Physical exercises, as we know, play an important role in formation of the correct constitution and development of the motive sphere. Therefore from first weeks of life fitness training is necessary for the child with deep violations of sight. The set of exercises is under construction taking into account children`s physiology and anatomy, on the basis of age physical and intellectual capacities of such child.to
to Blind kids of babyhood recommends the gymnastics in a game form consisting of exercises which are aimed at the development of a vestibular mechanism, muscular system and tactile sensitivity. The child can carry out them with mother or with the tutor. It is very useful to give classes under gentle, rhythmical music, synchronizing the movements in a step with it. For development of muscles of brushes and fingers of hands (small motility) it is possible to use daily situations (when the child buttons, surveys a new toy etc.) .
Skills of self-service
Ability to serve itself without assistance - the main thing that needs to learn to the blind kid . It is the first and main step on the way to full adaptation in society. And parents should pay to this aspect special attention.
the Main reception on which training is based, - to operate the child`s hands, having put on them the. And, making this or that action together with the kid, the adult surely has to tell in detail the kid that for what and as he does. However even the most diligent and patient parents will not be able to teach the child to all. Kid dolzhen to receive the most various impressions and abilities, communicating with able to see peers. Such relationship promotes its natural adaptation, helps formation of commitment and education of independence.
we Leave to the world with a smile
So, the kid grew up also to much learned, thanks to the help of relatives. It is time to expand vital space, to receive fresh impressions about the world, to open new opportunities of communication. But how to define that such moment came? Becomes peculiar “test“ for readiness for social contact with other people... smile child. And the most effective incentive for it - a benevolent human voice. Gradually the smile and laughter of the blind child become more selective, with their help he expresses the increasing affection for darlings and the people loving it.
Socialization includes development of emotional communications, communication with surrounding people. And it is natural, the blind kid has to learn to establish these relations. It will help it to adapt quicker in kindergarten (sometimes the speech can go only about specialized preschool institution) and at school (in most cases specialized). Progress in training and good relationship with peers will help the child to develop such important personal qualities as self-esteem, aspiration to recognition among schoolmates and the family, need for self-expression. How to help the child to reach all this? Most important that the blind child and his parents has to understand, - the fact that the kid should live in the world adapted for able to see people . On walk in park, in the yard, in circus and children`s theater he will be forced to communicate mainly with normally seeing children who will show, naturally, to it keen interest. For certain they will begin to feel sorry for such child, and sometimes in not really delicate form. And not quite tactful questions of a blindness and its reasons here, unfortunately, are inevitable. In such cases parents need to react quietly and with advantage. The best exit - to answer everything, keeping endurance, diplomatically, without ceremony and excessive dramatic nature, and at a well-chosen moment to give the conversation another turn and to involve the blind kid in its discussion. Thus and relatives of the blind child, and he will learn to talk rather freely soon on any including subjects, unpleasant for themselves. And this ability very much is useful in life. Experience of conducting the quiet, weighed dialogue with unfamiliar peers and strangers will allow the blind child to feel not only their various interests and the moral atmosphere, but also will help to develop for itself signs that conversation proceeds in kind tone and that there are no bases something or to be afraid of someone. And it is possible, will teach “to expect“ the interpersonal conflict from which nobody is insured.
Intelligent conversation of the blind child and mother at early age, conversation of mother at its presence with acquaintances and the stranger people and, at last, ability to carry on dialogue - here the main components of conditions for its successful training in games, self-service, the initial diploma in house conditions and Braille - to the letter as almost all problems of elementary education and education of the blind child depend on his skill to communicate. If there is no dialogue between the pupil (baby) and the teacher (mother), then already at this stage of its development training is extremely complicated or in general it is impossible. And on the contrary, training of the blind child in the most difficult skills, concepts and objects (musical notation, the theory of music, the mathematician) even with unfamiliar teachers will significantly become simpler if they together with parents teach the kid to ask competently questions - so that to receive the answers settling, in his opinion, detailed instructions, clear instructions and reasonable recommendations.
Kindergarten. Training. Work
Blind and visually impaired children can visit special preschool institutions where for them certain pedagogical techniques are provided. Tutors give with them special classes - for example, will organize dynamic games and exercises under music and singing which at the same time develop hearing, the speech, touch, a vestibular mechanism, coordination of muscles of hands, legs and a back, and also promote development of small motility (for example, occupations by a molding from plasticine).to
Besides, for kids with deep pathologies of sight intended special books with volume (convex) letters, figures and illustrations from the world of a sculpture, architecture, sport, equipment, fauna and flora, and also the speaking toys.
Of course, progress in training can be not such obvious as it would be desirable. Especially if it is about the blind deep-premature child at whom functions of the central nervous system not fully correspond to his age. But even in this case efforts will not be vain and will be rewarded later. Always there are bases to hope that with age the situation is more or less normalized. The teenagers who successfully graduated boarding schools for blind and visually impaired (with the high level of the intellectual test), can graduate from the relevant higher education institutions and to become lawyers, historians, musicians, even computer programmers (by the cars equipped Braille - the keyboard and a synthesizer of the speech). Besides, blind and visually impaired can work in system uchebno - manufacturing enterprises of the All-Russian society of blind people (depending on degree of safety of sight), assemblers of electrofittings and products from plastic, and also kartonazhnik - on condition of preliminary training at a workplace. Blind persons perfectly cope with duties of the secretary on phone, the massage therapist, work of the vegetable grower, etc. In a word, people with deep defeats of sight have a mass of opportunities for full socialization. The main thing - not to lower a hand and not to be given to an illness whatever menacing it seemed.